Hypertension is a very common phenomenon among people not only elderly, but also young. High blood pressure is dangerous because it causes damage to the heart and blood vessels. Further, serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, renal and heart failure, and angina pectoris are not excluded. To prevent life-threatening diseases, it is necessary to reduce the pressure and maintain it within normal limits. It is not always possible to do this without medication, especially in severe forms of hypertension. Often, only pressure lowering medications can help.
There is a classification of drugs that lower blood pressure. There are several groups of antihypertensive drugs, depending on the therapeutic effect and mechanism of action.
These are diuretic drugs that have been used for a long time and most often. The pressure is reduced by reducing the amount of blood circulating in the vessels as a result of the removal of excess fluid from the body. The main drawback of diuretics is the washing out of many useful substances from the body. Nowadays, they are prescribed less and less, usually with the third drug, with the lack of effectiveness of the other two, for treating the elderly from the age of 70 years.
Today, diuretics are used hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, Veroshpiron. The latter refers to fast diuretics, is prescribed only for severe forms of hypertension under the strict supervision of a physician.
These pressure-lowering drugs appeared in the 70s of the last century and made a revolution in the treatment of hypertension. Their action is based on the ability to block the enzyme angiotensin, which causes vasoconstriction. These include drugs such as Capoten, Enalapril, Lisinopril, Ramipril. They are effective, versatile, protect target organs, easy to use – only once a day.
These pills can reduce pressure, reduce heart rate, and also have an antiarrhythmic effect. The main contraindications are diabetes and asthma. The decrease in systolic and diastolic (cardiac) pressure occurs due to the specific effect on the beta receptors of the blood vessels and heart. Such well-known drugs as Anapirilin and Metoprolol, today prescribed quite rarely because of the short duration. Of the newer medicines, Bisoprolol, Nebivolol, Betaxolol, Carvedilol can be called.
These medicines, which lower the pressure, are also called calcium channel blockers. They give the same effect as beta blockers, but the mechanism of action is different. The pressure in this case falls due to the expansion of blood vessels. Unlike beta-blockers, they can be taken for bronchial asthma. The preparations of this group of the new generation are effective and long-lasting, convenient for reception – once a day.
There are calcium pulsating antagonists, or AKP, which include Verapamil and Diltiazem. They not only reduce the pressure, but also reduce the pulse rate.
Another group – calcium antagonists hydropyridine, or AKD. Today they use drugs of this group of the new generation, which do not increase the pulse, unlike the old drug Nifedipine. These are Amlodipine, Felodipine, Nimodipine, Lacidipine, Lercanidipine.
Direct renin inhibitors
This group includes only one drug – Alskerin. It is used only in combination with other means. It has a high cost.
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
Pressure lowering drugs of this group are intended for patients who have a cough after taking ACE inhibitors. They block the production of the enzyme angiotensin, as a result, the pressure drops. The effect of these funds comes two weeks after admission. These are quite expensive medications, which are usually prescribed only in case of side effects from an ACE inhibitor. These include Lozartan, Eprosartan, Valsartan, Irbesartan, Telmisartan, Olmesartan.
These drugs act quickly and are often used for emergency pressure reduction, for example, in hypertensive crises. These include Doxazolin.
Imidazole receptor inhibitors
Drugs in this group are prescribed for patients with diabetes with increased pressure. They are suitable for long-term treatment. This Amzaar, Moksonidin, Suhbeks, Fiziotenz.
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Effective drugs act directly on the vessels, penetrate into their smooth muscles, reduce the tone and thus expand them, thereby reducing pressure. They are prescribed in case of failure of other medicines, as well as during pregnancy. Often prescribed together with beta-blockers and diuretics. These include hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide, sodium nitroprusside.
Treatment of hypertension is possible only under the supervision of a physician. A scheme suitable for one patient may be contraindicated in another. Choosing drugs, you need to take into account their side effects, as well as associated diseases. You can not change drugs and their dosage.