A dermoid cyst (dermoid) is a tumor that has the shape of a cyst and a wall of connective tissue. For such a formation, the characteristic is that it is rough on the inside, and smooth on the outside. The inner layer is similar in structure to the skin and consists of the cuticle, stratified epithelium, it has sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair and fatty inclusions.
Dermoids can most often be located on the temporal region, the inner or upper edge of the orbit, the lower part of the neck, the scalp, the floor of the mouth and in the region of the handle of the sternum.
The formation of a dermoid cyst in a child occurs in the embryonic period, but it is not always noticeable at the time of birth. A dermoid cyst is an organoid teratoma and fibroepithelial formation consisting of connective tissues. Outside it is surrounded by an oval capsule. Dermoid can reach the size of a large pea and even a walnut. It has a cavity (single or multi-chamber), inside which there is a greasy mass with an admixture of hair and keratinized skin scales. Depending on what dermoid cysts contain, they are divided into soft and dense.
Symptoms in this pathology, as in other benign tumors, may be absent for a long time. Education in the neonatal period can be found in the form of a slightly stretched or rounded elastic ball, which is located under the skin. Symptoms of a dermoid cyst can manifest when it is suppressed, inflamed, enlarged, as well as pressure on closely lying organs.
Dermo cyst in a child is characterized by the fact that:
- most often it has a rounded shape;
- tight and elastic to the touch;
- not painful on palpation;
- not soldered to the skin;
- the skin over dermoid normal color, without rash, ulceration and
The clinical picture of a dermoid cyst is often associated with the size of the cyst, its location and age of the baby. Most often it can be located in the head (nose, eyebrows, eyes, ears, neck, neck), clavicle, coccyx, less often in the retroperitoneal space and mediastinum, testicles or ovaries.
Symptoms of a cyst appear in a child only when it is enlarged, suppressed, or inflamed. The tailbone demoid can cause impaired defecation and urination. A dermoid of the eyelid or eyeball may interfere with the clarity of vision. In girls, if a dermoid ovarian cyst grows to a large size, abdominal pain may occur. The picture of acute abdomen can cause torsion of the cyst legs.
Small dermoid cysts do not affect the health of the child and do not cause any violations of the internal organs. This is just an ordinary cosmetic defect that interferes with the baby and his parents. Any dermoid, despite its good quality, must be removed, since in 1-2% of cases there is a risk of its malignancy.
Often cysts can be located in the back of the intestinal space. As the dermoid grows, it begins to squeeze the rectum, and the symptoms of the disease begin to appear. First, defecation becomes difficult, and then fecal mass is allocated in the form of a tape. But such a state of unnecessary suffering to the child can not deliver. If the cyst contents are infected, pain occurs. At the same time, the cyst can be opened by itself into the lumen of the intestine or outward, due to which external or internal fistulas develop, it can be difficult to distinguish them from the chronic course of paraproctitis.
Dermo cysts are detected during a medical examination of a child. In addition to the physical examination, diagnostic procedures are carried out to determine if there is a connection between cysts and other tissues.
To do this, computed tomography, which can show in detail the image of any parts of the body (organs, fat, muscle and bone). Magnetic resonance imaging will help to get detailed images of various structures and organs.
To date, the causes of cysts have not been fully studied. Therefore, methods of prevention of dermoid cysts does not exist.
For the treatment of dermoid cysts only surgical intervention is used, there are no other methods of treatment. In this case, the dermoid shell is completely removed. In children up to seven years old, this operation is performed under general anesthesia, and in older ones, local anesthesia is used.
Often the operation goes through a small puncture, while it lasts no more than a quarter of an hour, and after it there are no scars and marks. A child after a few hours after such intervention can go home, and after a few days completely forget about it.