Immediately during the explosion, only one person died in the fourth power unit (Valery Hodemchuk), another died in the morning from his injuries (Vladimir Shashenok). Subsequently, 134 Chernobyl NPP employees and members of the rescue teams who were at the station during the explosion developed radiation sickness, 28 of which died within the next few months.
At 1:24 am, the signal on the control of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on duty at the console of the HPV-2 received a fire signal. The guard of the fire brigade (at ZIL-131), headed by Vladimir Pavlovich Pravik, a lieutenant of the internal service, went to the station. The guard of the 6th city fire department headed by Lieutenant Viktor Nikolaevich Kibenok left Pripyat for help. Lieutenant V.P. Pravik took the lead in extinguishing the fire. His literacy prevented the spread of fire. Additional reinforcements were called out from Kiev and the surrounding areas (the so-called “number 3” is the highest number of fires).
From the means of protection, the firefighters had only a canvas robe (boevka), mittens, and a helmet. Links GDZS were in gas masks KIP-5. Because of the high temperature, the firemen took them off in the first minutes. By 4 am, the fire was located on the roof of the engine room, and by 6 am it was extinguished. In total, 69 personnel and 14 pieces of equipment took part in extinguishing the fire. The presence of a high level of radiation was reliably established only by 3:30, as of the two available devices at 1000 R / h, one failed and the other was unavailable due to the arisen blockages. Therefore, in the first hours of the accident, the real levels of radiation in the premises of the block and around it were unknown. The state of the reactor was also unclear. There was a version that the reactor was intact and needed to be cooled.
The firefighters did not let the fire spread to the third unit (at the 3rd and 4th power units there are uniform transitions). Instead of a fire-resistant coating, as it was laid according to the instructions, the roof of the engine room was flooded with ordinary combustible bitumen. At about 2 o’clock in the morning the first startled from among the firefighters appeared. They began to show weakness, vomiting, nuclear tan. Help was provided to them on the spot, in the first-aid post of the station, and then transported to the city hospital of Pripyat. On April 27, the first group of victims from 28 people was sent by plane to Moscow, to the 6th radiological hospital. Drivers of fire trucks were practically not injured.
In the first hours after the accident, many apparently did not realize how badly damaged the reactor was, so the erroneous decision was made to ensure the supply of water to the reactor core to cool it. To do this, it was necessary to conduct work in areas with high radiation. These efforts were useless, since the pipelines and the core itself were destroyed. Other actions of the station personnel, such as putting out fires on the premises of the station, measures aimed at preventing a possible explosion, on the contrary, were necessary. They may have prevented even more serious consequences. In carrying out these works, many of the station’s staff received large doses of radiation, and some even deadly
Strong poisonous substances (sdyav) are calledchemical compounds that in certain quantities exceeding the MPC, have a harmful effect on people, farm animals, plants, causing them to varying degrees of damage.
SDNS can be elements of the technological process (ammonia, chlorine, sulfuric and nitric acids, hydrogen fluoride) and can be formed during fires at facilities of national economy (carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide).
The damaging effect of sdyav on humans is possible both as a result of the ingestion of such substances in a liquid droplet form on human skin, and as a result of inhaling their vapors. According to the toxic properties, SDYAV mainly belong to the group of substances of general toxic and suffocating action. Symptoms of poisoning in most cases are headache, dizziness, darkening of the eyes, tinnitus, increasing weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and with severe poisoning, fainting, convulsions, loss of consciousness and even death.
By the nature of the physiological effects on the human body, there are six main types of toxic and highly active toxic substances:
· Nerve toxic agents affecting the central nervous system. The purpose of the application of nerve agents is the rapid and massive withdrawal of personnel from the system with the greatest possible number of deaths. Toxic agents of this group include sarin, soman, tabun and V-gases.
· Toxic-blistering toxic agents. They defeat mainly through the skin, and when applied in the form of aerosols and vapors – also through the respiratory system. The main toxic substances are mustard gas, lewisite.
· Toxic substances of general action. Once in the body, they interfere with the transfer of oxygen from the blood to the tissues. This is one of the fastest agents. These include hydrocyanic acid and chlorocyan.
· Choking agents affect mainly the lungs. The main agents are phosgene and diphosgene.
· The psycho-chemical agents of action can for some time incapacitate the enemy’s living force. These toxic substances, acting on the central nervous system, disrupt the normal mental activity of a person or cause such mental deficiencies as temporary blindness, deafness, fear, and restriction of motor functions. Poisoning with these substances, in doses that cause mental impairment, does not lead to death. The agents from this group are inuklidyl-3-benzylate (BZ) and lysergic acid diethylamide.
· Toxic substances of irritant action, or irritants (from the English. Irritant – irritant). Irritants are fast-acting. At the same time, their action, as a rule, is short-lived, since after leaving the infected area, signs of poisoning disappear in 1 to 10 minutes. Lethal action for irritants is possible only with the ingestion of doses in the tens to hundreds of times higher than the minimum and optimally acting doses. Tearing agents that cause excessive tearing and sneezing, irritating the respiratory tract are considered to be irritating agents (they can also affect the nervous system and cause skin lesions). Tear substances – CS, CN, or chloroacetophenone and PS, or chloropicrin. Coughs – DM (adamsit), DA (diphenylchloroarsine) and DC (diphenylcyanarsin). There are agents that combine tear and sneezing actions. Annoying agents are used by the police in many countries and therefore are classified as police or special non-lethal means (special means).
First aid for lesions of sdya.
First aid for nerve infections includes:
· The introduction of an antidote from an individual AI first-aid kit or from a bag of medical military SMV;
· Partial sanitization using an individual anti-chemical package of IPP;
· Artificial respiration (according to indications);
· Exit, (removal, removal) from the source of infection;
· Evacuation to the medical center of the part by sanitary or other transport in the means of protection, especially heavy ones.
First aid for infection with a blistering agent with poisonous substances includes:
· Putting on the gas mask after rinsing the eyes with water from a flask and treating the face with IPP contents;
· Treatment of exposed skin and adjacent clothing with IPP;
· Induction of vomiting in case of ingestion of an agent in the stomach;
· Evacuation of the affected from the outbreak.
First aid for infection with a blistering agent with poisonous substances includes:
· In case of breathing disorder or stopping – artificial respiration;
· Exit (removal) from the infected area.
Persons with severe intoxication are evacuated first. An effective therapeutic antidote is an anti-cyan that is administered intramuscularly in the amount of first aid.
First aid for inhalation of poisonous substances includes:
· Putting on a gas mask and carrying the victim out of the infected area;
· During respiratory arrest – artificial respiration;
· Provision of rest and shelter from the cold;
· Evacuation of victims in transport.
First aid in case of infection with irritating poisonous substances includes:
· The use of a therapeutic agent – ficilin to relieve pain from the respiratory tract (crush the ampoule and lay a gas mask under the mask);
· Removing the gas mask and rinsing the eyes with water outside the source of infection;
· If the respiratory tract and eyes are irritated sharply, the injured are evacuated to the medical center
First aid for infection with psychochemical agents includes:
· Partial sanitization using IPP;
· Withdrawal (removal) from the zone of infection with previously seized weapons;
· Evacuation primarily of persons with impaired psyche (aggressive actions, hallucinations, unusual behavior, etc.).
All emergency response tasks are carried out in stages in a certain sequence, as soon as possible. At the first stage, the tasks of emergency protection of the population, preventing development or reducing the impact of emergency situations and preparing for the implementation of rescue and other urgent work. The main measures for emergency protection of the population: warning of danger; use of protective equipment; observance of behavior; evacuation from hazardous areas; the use of means of medical prevention and the provision of injured medical and other types of care. Localization of the lesion, stopping or changing the process, warning and extinguishing fires. An investigation of the lesion focus and assessment of the current situation is being conducted. The second stage is the conduct of rescue and other urgent work that is carried out continuously with the necessary change of rescuers and liquidators. Rescue operations include search of victims, their removal from debris, burning buildings, damaged vehicles; evacuation of people from dangerous areas; first aid to the victims. Emergency work: localization and extinguishing of fires, demolition of debris, strengthening of structures, restoration of utility energy networks, communication lines, roads, sanitation, decontamination, degassing, disinfection and
Man-made disasters – sudden failure of machinery, units, accompanied by serious disruption of the production process, explosions, fires, radioactive, chemical or biological contamination of large areas, group damage to people. Man-made disasters include accidents at industrial facilities, in transport, as a result of which consequences have arisen that create a threat to the public and the environment. The nature of the effects of TC depends on the type of accident, its scale, circumstances. TC may be the result of the impact of natural factors, design and production defects of structures, violations of technological processes, operating rules. Most often – violations of the process and rules of TB.
Anthropogenic and environmental disasters – qualitative changes in the biosphere that have a negative impact on people, AK – caused by human activities. EC – can be caused by other factors (natural), but now – mainly man-made. This type includes: soil degradation (erosion, pollution by harmful substances, salinization, waterlogging), air pollution (acid rain, greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion).
Socio-political conflicts – wars, revolutions, coups – interstate, interethnic, class conflicts, accompanied by violence. According to the speed of propagation of danger, emergencies can be classified into sudden (earthquakes, explosions, transport accidents), rapid (fires, accidents with emission of gaseous, poisonous substances), moderate (floods, volcanic eruptions), with slowly spread danger (drought, epidemic, pollution soil). Indicators of the scale of the spread of emergencies are not only the size of the territory, but also the severity of the consequences. On this basis, local (object), flattering, regional, national, and global emergencies are distinguished (the consequences go beyond the country and spread to other states). The main types of consequences of emergency situations are: death, diseases, injuries of people, destruction, contamination of territories (radioactive, chemical, biological). Psycho-traumatic circumstances affect people.
Deactivation – it is one of the types of disinfection, it is the removal of radioactive substances from the contaminated area, from the surface of buildings, structures, equipment, clothing, personal protective equipment, water, food.
Decontamination can be carried out in two ways – mechanical and physico-chemical, which complement each other. The mechanical method involves the removal of radioactive substances from contaminated surfaces by brushing with brushes and improvised means, shaking out, knocking out clothes, washing with a jet of water, blowing off (for example, using aircraft engines). To reduce the surface tension of water can increase the temperature and the use of surfactants (soap, washing powder, etc.). The mechanical method is the simplest and most accessible and, as a rule, is used for decontamination of equipment, vehicles, clothing, personal protective equipment immediately after leaving the contaminated area.
However, due to the close contact of radioactive substances with the surface of many materials and their deep penetration into the surface, the mechanical method of decontamination may not give the desired effect. Therefore, along with it, a physicochemical method is used, which involves the use of solutions of special preparations that significantly increase the efficiency of removal (flushing) of radioactive substances from the surface.
Degassing – a set of measures aimed at neutralization (removal) of toxic substances at various environmental objects. Depending on the method of degassing can be partial and complete. Partial degassing is the neutralization (removal) of toxic substances only in those areas of objects with which a person comes in contact in the process. Full outgassing is carried out after the troops and civil defense units perform combat missions and provides for the complete decontamination of agents at the facilities being processed, precluding the possibility of subsequent destruction of personnel. Small items, personal weapons in all cases are subjected to complete degassing. All objects contaminated with persistent toxic substances (V-gases, organic substances such as soman, mustard gas) in a liquid droplet or aerosol state are subjected to degassing. The contamination of weapons, equipment, terrain in the summer remains for several days, in winter – up to several weeks, months. The persistence of infection depends on the type of toxic substances, the density of infection, meteorological conditions and the depth of penetration of toxic substances into various materials. When contaminated with vapors of organophosphorus toxic substances (sarin, soman, V-gases), uniforms, tents and other porous materials are also subject to degassing. For degassing weapons and equipment, medical equipment used degassing substances, solvents and detergents.
Disinfection – This is a complex of measures aimed at the destruction of pathogens of infectious diseases and the destruction of toxins on environmental objects. Chemical substances, for example, formaldehyde or sodium hypochlorite, solutions of organic substances with disinfecting properties: chlorhexidine, QACs, peracetic acid, are commonly used to carry it out. Disinfection reduces the number of microorganisms to an acceptable level, but it may completely not destroy them. Is a type of disinfection. There are preventive, current and final disinfection:
· prophylactic – it is carried out constantly, regardless of the epidemic situation: washing hands, surrounding objects with the use of detergents and cleaning products containing bactericidal additives.
· current – is carried out at the bedside of the patient, in the isolators of medical points, medical institutions in order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases beyond the focus.
· the final – is carried out after isolation, hospitalization, recovery or death of a patient in order to release the epidemic focus from pathogens dispersed by the patient.
· Disinfestation (fr. dératisation – literally the destruction of rats) – comprehensive measures for the destruction of rodents (rats, mice, voles, etc.).
· Food poisons (in the form of baits), traps, gaseous poisons, electronic traps, ultrasonic scare devices are used. Sometimes biological methods are used for deratization, such as cats and dogs.
· The problem of deratization against mice is exacerbated with the end of summer, when the breeding population is looking for a place for wintering.
· The most effective is the scattering of poisonous baits, with an anticoagulant poison that prevents blood from clotting. Rodents who have eaten such a bait, do not die immediately, but after a few days, from internal bleeding.
For the effectiveness of deratization, it is customary to combine the extermination measures with preventive ones, aimed at creating unfavorable conditions for nesting and breeding of rodents, as well as at their possibility of entering the premises. For this, ventilation ducts are covered with metal mesh, windows of basements and attics are glazed.
Rescue and other urgent work (ASDNR) – a set of priority work in the emergency zone, which consists in saving and assisting people, localizing and suppressing the foci of damaging influences, preventing the occurrence of secondary damaging factors, protecting and saving material and cultural values. Rescue and other urgent work is carried out by rescue services in order to:
· Rescue people and assist the victims,
· Localization of accidents and repair of damage that impede rescue operations,
· Creating conditions for subsequent restoration work.
Liquidation of the consequences of the accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP
For the organization of more effective management of rescue and other urgent works, taking into account their nature and volume, rational use of available forces and means in the territory of the object, the places of work are determined, taking into account the peculiarities of the object’s territory, the nature of planning and construction, the location of protective structures and technological communications, as well as highways. Rescue and other urgent works have a different content, but are usually carried out simultaneously.
TO rescue work include:
· Reconnaissance of routes of formations and areas of upcoming work;
· Localization and extinguishing of fires on the routes of formations and areas of work;
· Search of victims and their removal from blockages, damaged and burning buildings, gassed, smoke-filled and flooded premises;
· Air supply in the heaped protective structures with damaged ventilation;
· Opening of destroyed, damaged and littered defenses, rescue of people there;
· Rendering first aid to victims and their evacuation to medical institutions;
· Removal (withdrawal) of the population from dangerous places to safe areas;
· Sanitization of people, disinfection of their clothes, territories, structures, equipment, water and food.
The US Coast Guard is looking for survivors of the New Orleans of Katrina after the defeat in 2005.
To ensure the success of rescue operations in the outbreak are carried out other urgent work. These include:
· Laying of column tracks and arrangement of passages (passages) in the rubble and in the infected areas;
· Localization of accidents on utility and technological networks;
· Strengthening or collapse of buildings (structures) that threaten with a collapse on the way to the work sites.
When conducting rescue and other urgent work in lesions resulting from military actions, additional activities are carried out:
· Detection, neutralization and destruction of unexploded ordnance in ordinary equipment;
· Repair and restoration of damaged protective structures.
A rescue team from Los Angeles retrieves a woman after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010 from under the ruins
At the same time, such work as
· Disinfection of lesions;
· Collection of material values;
· Provision of food for the population in need;
· Disposal of contaminated food and other work to prevent the outbreak of the epidemic.