In common opinion, heart rate and blood pressure are little related to each other.
At best, we can talk about partial coincidence of pathological processes, but more often there is a banal occurrence of symptoms at the same time, but they are not related to each other and have an individual origin.
It is extremely rare to have a combination of severe hypertension (tonometer readings over 140 by 90) and bradycardia, that is, a decrease in heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute.
Low pulse at high pressure carry a potential threat to the health, and even the life of a patient of any age. Careful observation of this kind of patients is necessary, preferably in a specialized cardiological hospital.
Against the background of the course of the adjacent pathological process, terrible complications are observed, including death.
High blood pressure and a rare pulse are caused by a group of causes, often of a heterogeneous nature. What should be aware of such a pathological combination in order to be fully armed and not to miss the right moment?
Is there a relationship between pulse and pressure?
Strictly speaking, there is no such direct direct connection. The pulse rate is determined by nerve impulses, due to the work of the special reflex zones of the heart itself and, in part, the brain.
Pressure grows for a whole mass of reasons, most often there is a combination of dissimilar pathological factors, which give at once two pathogenic manifestations.
But the pressure does not cause the pulse and the heart rate does not cause an increase or decrease in the performance of the tonometer.
Example. A person suffers from traumatic brain injury. The pressure rises due to irritation of specific regulatory cerebral structures. Will the pulse decrease?
Depends on related factors. Concussion of the brain itself cannot affect cardiac activity if the organ trunk is not injured.
If an additional pathogenic factor is connected (for example, a malfunction of the thyroid gland), bradycardia will also be added. Is there a connection? Obviously not.
A low pulse can be observed both on the background of hypertension and on the background of hypotension. This is little to say even to doctors. Is there a connection in this case?
Indirectly, you can associate high blood pressure with a low pulse level, but it will be attracted by the ears.
In all cases, careful diagnosis is recommended in the hospital to identify the causes of threatening cardiac conditions.
Causes of low pulse at high pressure
The development of hypertension with a rare pulse is explained by a large group of heterogeneous causes. What factors are most common?
In other words, a reduced concentration of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. Always provokes the formation of low heart rate.
In some cases, it also causes an increase in blood pressure to insignificant elevations (140-150 mm Hg). Ultrasound diagnostics and laboratory research methods will help to put an end to the question.
Development of persistent bleeding
With a minimum amount of outflow of hematologic fluid. Among the factors of the formation of a similar problem: stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcer, Crohn’s disease and other pathologies.
They are associated with anemia when the body lacks iron. As a result, cardiac activity and regulatory processes in the body suffer.
Diseases of the brain and cerebral structures
Meningitis (inflammatory process), tumors of different localization in the brain, hematomas resulting from head injuries.
There is a stimulation of specific centers responsible for the regulation of vascular tone throughout the body, the normal heart rhythm is disrupted – that is why a low pulse with high pressure.
Vagus technique is also used to lower blood pressure as a first aid measure and diagnostic method. If there are no pathologies of an ophthalmologic profile.
It consists in a sharp drop in the heart rate, with mechanical action on the eyeballs, the so-called Ashner reflex. No pathological character.
Mechanical effect on the carotid sinus
For example, when strangling, wearing a tight collar or tie. Sinus is located in the carotid artery.
When the anatomical structure is compressed, a violation of the heart rate occurs, and the pressure can both increase and decrease.
Neurotic pathologies with severe vegetative dysfunction
Occur mainly in patients with a special warehouse of personality. Usually they are representatives of the weaker sex, emotionally labile. Less often – young men.
Such neurotic manifestations require complex treatment, both by a neurologist and a psychotherapist.
Impaired blood circulation and hemodynamics in the brain
As a result of the course of pathologies, from cervical osteochondrosis to vertebrobasilar insufficiency, the pressure may rise, and the pulse decreases.
This kind of disease seems harmless only at first glance. Everything can end in failure, including a stroke.
Myocardial conduction disorders
Accompanied by permanent bradycardia without the ability to help classical medical methods.
Inflammation of the heart structures
Up to myocarditis, endocarditis and destruction of the atria or ventricles as a result of infectious diseases.
During the acute course of the disease and immediately after, in the first 6 months, bradycardia with a low-grade hypertension is considered to be an acceptable phenomenon.
It can be a physiological combination of hypertension and bradycardia. Most often, this situation is observed in professional athletes, literally driving their own body.
The heart beats at a frequency of 35-60 beats per minute, even during physical activity. Rare pulse is normal. The body is constantly on high alert.
It is interesting to note that professional athletes are more prone to cardiac arrest, heart attack and heart failure, in a period outside of physical activity (the cardiovascular system is used to overloading).
In each case, you need to understand separately.
Is this condition dangerous and what exactly?
Bradycardia (with a pulse of less than 50 beats per minute) carries a slightly lower risk than tachycardia, not even against the background of high blood pressure (within 140–160 mmHg). There are four possible consequences.
It is relatively rare in bradycardia. Usually associated with myocardial conduction disorders or changes in the sinus node. Without resuscitation, the person is killed. Help is needed urgently.
Associated with a change in the nature of the body. There is a lack of trophicity of tissues and, as a result, the impossibility of adequately providing the body with nutrients and oxygen.
Hypoxia and atrophy of anatomical structures causes a lot of symptoms. Including the myocardium suffers. In the absence of treatment, the next step in the development of pathology becomes a heart attack.
Emergency cardiac condition. Associated with acute malnutrition in the heart muscle and tissue death.
During the recovery period, the destroyed tissues are replaced by cicatricial (postinfarction cardiosclerosis), the nature of cardiac activity changes. The consequences remain with the person for life.
A sharp disturbance of cardiac output as a result of a decrease in heart rate. Accompanied by acute ischemia of the cerebral circulation. One of the most terrible complications of bradycardia. Requires cardiac surgery.
In addition, the condition is accompanied by unpleasant manifestations, such as decreased performance, constant drowsiness, pain behind the sternum, dizziness and
What can be done at home?
Nothing. Requires comprehensive diagnosis and timely treatment in a hospital. It is better not to do anything on your own, because it is possible to aggravate the general state of health.
For an acute attack of bradycardia (pulse less than 50 beats per minute), it is recommended to call an ambulance and wait for the doctors to arrive.
Before the arrival of the doctor, you must take a horizontal position and calm down. Sharp movements are better not to do. It is possible to change the nature of the heart rate in the direction of further reducing the frequency of contractions, and not vice versa.
In no case can you drink tonic drinks, sedatives, drugs based on barbiturates and other sedatives. Again, it is likely that bradycardia will worsen.
High pressure and low pulse cannot be taken off by yourself. Doctors need help and a combination of drugs with well-adjusted dosages.
After the doctors arrive, the issue of hospitalization is resolved. A complex of primary measures is carried out on site with the introduction of stimulant drugs, less often other drugs that do not increase blood pressure in a patient.
It is better to agree to transportation to the hospital and be checked completely. Otherwise, you need to schedule a visit to a cardiologist for the near future.
Symptoms requiring medical attention or emergency medical care
The list of dangerous to life and health symptoms is quite wide. It is necessary to consult a doctor in any incomprehensible situation, it is not necessary to be shy. False installations may cost too much.
Among the manifestations that should be alerted, can be identified:
- Headache of any location and degree of intensity. This is a dangerous manifestation. Indicates a violation of the tone of blood vessels and blood circulation.
- Dizziness. All the more regular. Associated with an attack of bradycardia and hypertension.
- Consciousness. Confusion, the impossibility of normal thinking. It is dangerous because it indicates an acute violation of cerebral circulation.
- Chest pains. Give back and hands.
- Shortness of breath, breathing problems.
- Feelings causeless fear, panic attack.
- Pulse less than 50 beats per minute, weakness, drowsiness, weakness and a significant decrease in performance even in the morning.
This is only a small part of the manifestations. Others are possible. In all doubtful cases, you should consult a doctor. This is an axiom that must be remembered.
The list of necessary examinations for bradycardia on the background of hypertension
Examine and heart, and blood vessels. Factors of development processes can be many. First of all, it is worth contacting a cardiologist.
If necessary, he will refer the patient to a neurologist or endocrinologist. The complexity and duration of the survey depends on the nature of the disease and the complexity of the situation.
In general, the list of studies is as follows:
- Initial consultation, conversation with the collection of characteristic complaints and anamnestic data. Plays a big role, this is the first step in identifying the root causes of the condition.
- The study of heart rate with a stethoscope or automatic blood pressure monitor.
- Measurement of blood pressure. Required in all cases.
- Daily monitoring with automatic Holter monitor.
- Electrocardiography with the study of the nature of the heart rate and its frequency.
- The study of myocardial conductivity through the introduction of a special sensor. An invasive but informative procedure.
- Assessment of the concentration of pituitary, adrenal and thyroid hormones.
- Investigation of the neurological status.
A complete list of activities is required. At the discretion of the doctor, the list is subject to change.
Treatment methods depend on the nature of the pathological process. It is necessary to eliminate the root cause of bradycardia and high blood pressure.
- In case of medicinal origin of deviations of the heart rhythm, correction of therapeutic doses and treatment regimen is required.
- Hemodynamic disturbances are corrected by preparations for the expansion of blood vessels. Specific names are selected only by an expert.
- If the cause of a low pulse at high pressure is Morgagni-Adams-Stokes syndrome, the surgical treatment of the pathology with the introduction of a pacemaker is required to be resolved.
After surgery, both indicators, and pulse, and pressure come within the framework of the physiological norm.
Bradycardia with hypertension is a rare but dangerous combination that requires mandatory correction. Self-treatment is unacceptable, it is dangerous and useless. Especially since the process is complex.
Treatment involves removing the root cause; you may need surgery (rare cases). It is recommended to trust the doctor. All incomprehensible moments should be clarified on the spot.