How and what to treat eye pressure? In order to answer this question, it is necessary to understand well what constitutes this intraocular pressure, the reasons for its increase or decrease, as well as the symptoms with which all this will be accompanied.
What is intraocular pressure?
Intraocular pressure refers to the pressure with which the eye fluid (the vitreous and the anterior chamber substance) from the inside acts on the eye wall. IOP values are characterized by an enviable constancy, which allows the eyeball to maintain the same shape throughout a person’s life. And this, in turn, provides a person with good vision.
Why is it important to monitor intraocular pressure?
IOP indices very strongly influence the general state of the human organ of vision:
- It is the eye pressure that determines the normal size and shape of the eye. In the event that these figures are at least slightly changed, the optical system of the eye may completely cease to function;
- Only due to the constancy of IOP, the metabolism in the eyeball is maintained at the proper level.
It should be noted that the human eye is a rather complex device with a clear system of self-regulation. The pressure inside the eye is normal never falls below.
What changes in IOP are permissible in a healthy person?
As mentioned earlier, intraocular pressure is a relatively constant indicator. But small fluctuations during the day are still permissible.
For example, in the morning, immediately after a person wakes up, the IOP reaches its highest level. It is likely that this is due to the significant predominant action of the parasympathetic nervous system and the horizontal position of the body at night.
In the evening, on the contrary, eye pressure is declining. Normally, the difference between daytime and evening IOP does not exceed
Reduction in intraocular pressure
Factors, the occurrence of which can lower intraocular pressure:
- General fall in blood pressure, hypotension;
- The presence of foreign bodies in the eye or its trauma;
- Inflammatory diseases of the eye (uveitis, ireitis and
Symptoms of IOP reduction
Usually, a decrease in ocular pressure occurs rather unnoticed by the patient. Only in some cases, the doctor may notice that the patient’s eyes lose their usual shine and become dry (frequent blinking). In a serious condition, a patient sometimes has a slight recession in the eyeballs.
Complications of reducing IOP
As a result of a prolonged decrease in eye pressure, the patient’s vision is almost always substantially impaired. After some time, the atrophy of the eyeball begins to develop – the disorders become irreversible.
Increased eye pressure
Currently, there are three types of increased eye pressure:
- Transient. It is characterized by a short one-time increase in pressure, which is normalized after a few minutes;
- Labile. The pressure rises after a certain period of time, but it does not last long and gradually recovers completely;
- Stable. Eye pressure is always higher than normal. Often marked progressive course.
The reasons for the increase in IOP
The reasons contributing to the increase in intraocular pressure are many. Among them are the most important:
- Stress and violent emotional reactions;
- Neurological diseases;
- Heart failure;
- Acute renal failure;
- Diffuse toxic goiter;
- Itsenko-Cushing syndrome;
- Severe poisoning
In addition, there is a secondary intraocular pressure, which is one of the symptoms of various eye diseases:
- Tumor processes;
- Inflammatory diseases;
- Eye injuries.
In all of the above cases, the IOP increases periodically and for a certain period. It depends on the primary pathology. But if the disease is characterized by a long course, then after a while it will inevitably lead to the development of glaucoma. Moreover, the latter is considered the main cause of constant high pressure.
Symptoms of increased IOP
Almost all symptoms of high IOP are not specific. And this complicates the diagnosis of the disease. The following are the most common symptoms:
- Headaches in the temples;
- Sore eyes;
- Increased eye fatigue;
- Discomfort at work;
- Blurred vision (less common);
With the development of a persistent increase in IOP, the following symptoms are noted:
- Sharp reduction of visual fields;
- Disruption of twilight vision;
- Flashing flies;
- Blurred vision;
Eye Pressure Treatment
Almost always at the first appointment, the doctor prescribes drugs that reduce IOP. And in order for the treatment to be effective, the patient must strictly follow all instructions of the doctor.
How to treat eye pressure with conservative therapy?
All treatment is based on a decrease in IOP. This effect is achieved by increasing the outflow or reduction of production of aqueous humor. Depending on the reasons for the change in intraocular pressure, either surgical treatment or conservative therapy will be applied. So, the latter is the use of certain drugs. This is usually oral (taken by mouth), intravenous or in the form of eye drops.
The most effective drugs for eye pressure:
- Alpha adrenergic agonists, beta adrenergic blockers, as well as prostaglandin analogues (the most popular drugs);
- Beta blockers (Timoptik). Reduce the amount of emitting aqueous humor;
- Alpha-adrenergic agonists (brimonidine). Improves outflow of fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye;
- Prostaglandins. (Xalatan). The newest drugs that reduce IOP due to the outflow of aqueous humor in the posterior (secondary) path.
Surgical intervention is indicated only in case of a serious condition of the patient, which persists even after the conservative treatment has been performed.
The most commonly used surgery, which is called iridotomy. It consists in creating a hole at a certain point in the iris. At the same time, the pressure inside the eye gradually normalizes. The operation is performed more often with a laser, in which case the outer shell of the eye remains undamaged.
In some cases, trabeculoplasty and cyclo-photocoagulation are also used. These methods can significantly improve the outflow of aqueous humor and, consequently, reduce IOP.