Standard blood pressure indicators, the rate of pressure and pulse rate by age, heart rate (heart rate) rhythm of the heartbeat are a natural biological marker for a diagnosis or a clinical picture of human health.
Changes in these indicators can occur for various reasons – from internal factors to the influence of something on a person from the outside. One of these reasons is the age factor, which will inevitably affect various processes inside the body, and therefore the norms of blood pressure and pulse will change.
What is the rate of pressure and pulse in the age criteria
Pulse and blood pressure are very closely related and their indicators are interdependent. If the pressure changes, the heart rate and pulse rhythm will change. If there is a load on the heart, the pulse will change and the pressure will change. Their concepts and definitions should be considered separately:
- Pulse is the rhythmic tremors that appear in the walls of human arteries, veins and capillaries, the source of which is the work of the heart. When changing the contractions of the heart muscles, the intensity of the flow of blood flowing through the arteries and veins, the frequency and rhythm of the pulse will change.
- Pressure is the force of blood flow, pushed out by the heart and directly acting on the walls of blood vessels. Pressure indicators depend on the strength, speed of contractions of the heart muscles, as well as the volume of blood that the heart is able to pump in 1 minute.
Pulse also has properties:
- filling with blood volume;
- tension (hard, soft, moderate);
- height or amplitude;
- speed or shape of the pulse.
The pulse in the form can be fast, slow and dicthetic. When measuring pressure, a tonometer is used, where the indicators are divided into two values:
- systolic value – upper pressure threshold;
- diastolic value – the lower threshold pressure.
The unit for tonometer is millimeters of mercury – mmHg. Art. As a result, the tonometer will give out two figures, and an entry in the patient’s card is made (if pressure is checked in a clinical setting) so – 135/83 mm Hg. Art. for a 45 year old woman. The obtained indicators of the device are compared with the pressure standard of the age criterion, which is determined by the table.
Note! Despite the fact that there are established norms, blood pressure is still considered to be individual and may have some slight deviations from standard numbers. Therefore, if the upper or lower values of the tonometer by 2-3 units are deviated from the norm – this is allowed.
Table of norms of pressure and pulse by age – table of values
The table of pressure and pulse rates by age reflects the difference of these indicators in accordance with the age of a person. These standards should always be guided when measuring the pulse or pressure of a person. Consider two tables that reflect each of the indicators separately.
Table 1. Pressure standards – indicators of standards from the first days
Table 2. Pulse rates – rates from the first days
The rate of pressure and pulse depends on the structure of the body, its development, as well as the subsequent obsolescence, slowing down of processes and so on. For example, babies have a heart that is not as big as an adult. Accordingly, the rates of reductions in an infant will differ from those of an adult’s heart. Large fluctuations in pressure and pulse in adolescents are due to their hormonal disruptions and spikes of natural origin. Especially during puberty, boys and girls go through puberty.
A gradual increase in systolic pressure is an indicator of age-related changes in the human body for gradual aging. Whereas in the first half of life, fluctuations in diastolic pressure are most often observed. The decrease in the lower pressure comes from the fact that the walls of the vessels of the old person are no longer as elastic and durable as those of young people.
Any deviations from the norm should always be regarded in the context of a person’s life. If this is, for example, an athlete, then it is normal for him to have increased rates after training.
Note! Deviations in pressure are permissible. Pathology should be diagnosed only when the values deviate from the norm by 15 units, either up or down. As for the pulse, then you need to look at the circumstances that led to its increase or weakening. If there are no prerequisites, then the problem of deviations from the norm should be sought inside the body.
What methods can measure the pulse
Before trying to measure your own pulse or pressure yourself using special instruments, you should pay attention to simple rules, definitions and methods that are applicable. Blood pressure and pulse rate is measured in the following areas of the human body:
- Palpation of the wrist – palpation of the pulse on both hands.
- Armpits – the lower lateral wall is sensed where the axillary artery is located.
- Shoulder – the brachial artery is located close to the elbow.
- Elbow – should be palpated on the wrist, its medial part.
- Thigh – feel on its inner side, where the femoral artery.
- The popliteal part of the leg – the joint is bent at an angle of 124 degrees, it is felt at the top of the popliteal fossa.
- The feet of the legs – the dorsal artery is probed on the lateral side above the arch of the feet, where the long extensor joint of the thumbs is, and the tibial artery is probed 2 cm below the back of the ankle.
- Neck – the so-called carotid pulse probe on the carotid artery of the neck.
- Face – the lower part opposite the corners of the mouth.
- Whiskey – feel a little higher zygomatic arch.
The humeral pulse is often determined in infants. The finding of the apical pulse on the torso (trunk) of a person occurs by probing the 4th or 5th intercostal space from the midclavicular line outside.
This is usually done not so much to check the pulsation, as to check the work of the heart, its contractions. In the clinic, the pulse is measured by a special device – a sphygmograph, which allows you to get a graphic image of rhythm.
Capillary pulsation can be found on the nail bed of the index finger, if you press down the tip of the nail and see how the color will change. Also look at the lower lip, pressing it down with glass and on the skin of the forehead. According to the capillary pulse of the norms do not establish because the blood flow through the capillaries is continuous. But it can sometimes determine how much the difference between systolic (upper) and diastolic (lower) pressure has increased.
The method of palpation is considered to be approximate, and more accurate indicators are still different device. Now there are many options for portable wristwatches in the form of bracelets or watches that can be found on the market of various tuning for athletes.
Just go to the bike sales shop and there you will immediately find a special wrist-watch with a timer capable of catching the slightest fluctuations in the pulse. There are many other options – fingerprint, contactless face appearance through a webcam and Internet portals specializing in innovative technologies.
What affects heart palpitations
During an illness, experts fix a pulse rate rate of 120 beats per 1 minute, and before a person dies, a pulse rate is considered to be 160 beats per minute. Characteristics of a parameter such as human pressure can be affected by:
- strength, heart rate;
- viscous, thick or rare blood;
- various deposits and formations on the walls of blood vessels (atherosclerosis);
- how elastic are the walls of blood vessels;
- excessive expansion or contraction of blood vessels under the influence of emotional factors;
- the work of the endocrine system that produces hormones;
- time of day and human activity;
- key diseases affecting the cardiovascular system;
- age features.
Human heart rate (heart rate) and pulse can affect:
- ecological living environment and activity;
- physical, mental, or emotional stress;
- age and sex criterion;
- hormonal effects;
- the presence of diseases that burden the cardiovascular system;
- changes in diet and lifestyle;
- active or passive posture;
- minimum or maximum inhale-exhale;
- time of day
For example – in women, the pulse is often fixed at 7 shocks exceeded than in men, if we talk about the age of 18-20 years. And if you focus on the time of the day, then after lunch until 8 o’clock in the evening the pulsation increases in both men and women of different ages. In infants, the pulsation may change in the direction of an increase in heat, stressful situations, bursts of emotion, overwork, anxiety, or the presence of an infection in the body, an increased body temperature.
The size of the heart will always depend on the size of the blood, which it will be able to pump for normal human life. Therefore, at different age, approximately in the first quarter of life, when the heart is formed and grows in size, the indicators of pressure and pulse will be one. And now in the formed organism – others. At an older age or elderly, the main cause of completely different indicators of heart rate and pressure is fatigue of the internal systems, obsolescence and wear of the vessels and the heart.