Low pressure is a big problem. A one-time decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure below the normal level is called arterial hypotension. But what is the indicator of the lower limit and is it the same for all?
Medicine offers the following gradation of lower blood pressure:
- under 25 years old – 100/60 mm Hg. v .;
- from 25 to 40 years – 105/65 mm Hg. v .;
- 50 years and above – according to the formula: HELL = age + 50 (where HELL is systolic blood pressure).
What to do when the gauge needle mercilessly indicates low pressure: 60 to 30 mm Hg. st.? First of all, let us examine what causes underlie this state.
Why does this happen?
The reasons for lowering blood pressure are many:
- The first group is due to physiological mechanisms. Such hypotension is observed in some healthy individuals, athletes, and in conditions of adaptation (in highland residents or in tropical climates).
- The second group includes primary hypotonic disease and orthostatic hypotension.
- The third group is acute or chronic secondary (symptomatic) hypotension. Acute hypotension is most dangerous.
- A drop in pressure is possible with all types of shock conditions (against the background of bleeding, dehydration, sepsis, anaphylactoid reaction, trauma, cardiac pathology), collapse, overdose of drugs.
How low pressure manifests
Despite the variability of causes, the symptoms of low pressure are similar:
- heart palpitations;
- aching, constricting pain in the region of the heart;
- heart rhythm disturbance (due to a decrease in perfusion pressure in the coronary arteries);
- subjective lack of air;
- numbness and coldness of the limbs;
- muscle pain and nausea are possible;
- dizziness and hypotonic headache, localized in the occipital, frontal, temporal areas.
If pressure drops, fainting is possible. Shortly before fainting, a state of “lipotymia” occurs. At the same time, a person experiences a sharp weakness of the lower extremities – “the earth is floating away from under his feet,” a darkening in his eyes – a feeling of “falling through”, tinnitus. The syncope itself lasts from 10 seconds to several minutes:
- pallor appears;
- sweat drops on forehead;
- pupils dilate;
- lost consciousness.
To feel the pulse when fainting is difficult.
In the case of transition to the chronic form occur:
- fatigue and weakness;
- destabilization of the emotional background;
- reduced ability to memorize;
- deterioration in sleep quality and drowsiness.
Risks and effects of low blood pressure
It is important to separate acute and chronic hypotensive states:
- The course of chronic hypotension may be complicated by hypotensive crises, in which, against the background of oxygen starvation, organs and tissues are stressed and the normal functioning of all organs and systems is disturbed.
- The danger lies in both cases, but in case of acute (especially first encountered) hypotension, due to its unpredictability, the situation requires special monitoring.
When exposed to the cause that caused the blood pressure to drop to a critical level, a compensatory reaction follows: the venous vessels dilate, while the inflow of venous blood to the heart decreases. In fact, the volume emitted by the heart to the blood organs decreases.
The extreme degree of such a condition is the occurrence of cardiogenic shock, when the pumping function of the heart muscle sharply decreases and there is a lack of blood supply, hypoxia of vital organs. Cardiogenic shock is accompanied by:
- a drop in pressure below 60 mmHg. v .;
- acute urinary retention;
- depression of consciousness;
- the addition of pulmonary edema.
In the absence of immediate assistance, death is possible. Ischemic stroke and heart attack are also complications due to low oxygen pressure due to low pressure.
The cunning is that sometimes hypotension is a disturbing symptom, indicating the presence of an already formed emergency, and not its original cause. This is how the “vicious circle” is formed, where the inextricable link between hypotension and emergency conditions can be traced.
What to do if you find yourself near a person whose pressure has dropped to a critical level:
- with blood pressure 60 to 30 mm Hg. Art. you should immediately call an ambulance;
- in the absence of consciousness, probe the pulse on the carotid artery, bring cotton wool with ammonia solution to the nose;
- put a person on a flat surface, put a roller or pillow under your feet so that they are in a raised position 30 degrees; this will ensure blood flow and reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia; do not place a pillow under your head;
- provide oxygen access to the room;
- free from tight clothing by unbuttoning a shirt collar;
- if the patient is conscious, the following methods are allowed: ingestion of strong brewed tea or coffee, ingestion of a liquid with the addition of 20 drops of an adaptogen: tinctures of ginseng, eleutherococcus or lemongrass, smooth rubbing and massaging movements of the neck.
Such methods can slightly raise blood pressure, which will allow the patient to wait for the SMP brigade.
Drug treatment of low pressure is carried out after identifying the causative factor. The specific treatment regimen depends on it, so it is very important to tell the specialist what, in your opinion, this decrease is related to, how often episodes of hypotension are, and whether there is concomitant pathology.
Therapy of life-threatening condition is carried out at the stage of emergency care and in the hospital. The main goal is stabilization of blood pressure. Apply to:
- vasoconstrictor (Dopamine, Mezaton);
- adrenomimetic drugs (Dobutamine, Norepinephrine);
- infusion of crystalloid and colloid solutions;
- glucocorticoid drugs.
For the treatment of chronic and secondary (symptomatic hypotension), it is advisable to prescribe plant adaptogens (Eleutherococcus, Schizandra, Aralia), caffeine, Etimizol, Cordiamin, Ephedrine (they are not prescribed for a long time because of the high probability of addiction). Cholinolytics, Atropine and Platifillin are included in complex therapy when combined with signs of vagotonia (bradycardia, characteristic signs of an electrocardiogram, a tendency to bronchospasm). The use of cerebroprotective, nootropic, antioxidant drugs in combination with vitamin therapy is common.
In order to prevent a decrease in pressure, the following preventive measures are recommended:
- rational psychotherapy aimed at combating negative thinking and maintaining emotional calm;
- food that corresponds to the diet of a healthy person with an increase in foods rich in animal proteins and vitamins;
- the use of strong tea or coffee in the morning (in the absence of contraindications);
- a set of physical exercises that contribute to an increase in blood pressure and tolerance of orthostatic body position (to avoid sharp movements);
- regular walks and walking in the fresh air;
- herbal medicine with a tonic, tonic and vasopressor purpose;
- physiotherapeutic procedures (consultation of a physiotherapist is obligatory): circular, jet shower, wiping with a gradual decrease in water temperature, balneotherapy, turpentine baths.
Remember that careful attention to your health, timeliness and integrity in the implementation of preventive measures will help to prevent low blood pressure.