An organ characterized by a butterfly shape and located at the front of the neck is called the thyroid gland. It affects virtually all metabolic processes in the body and produces several major hormones – calciotonin, triiodothyronine and thyroxin.
Triiodothyronine and thyroxin – hormones that have a direct effect on the work of the digestive and cardiovascular systems, allow you to control mental and mental activity, regulate protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. A certain type of thyroid cells synthesizes the most valuable hormone calciotonin – it controls the level of calcium in the body.
General characteristics of thyroid pathologies
Even with minor violations of the functioning of the thyroid gland, a significant deterioration in the state of health is observed – the organ in question is responsible for the functioning of all body systems. Usually, in cases of diseases of the thyroid gland, we are talking about insufficient or, on the contrary, excessive synthesis of hormones, often such phenomena are accompanied by an increase in the organ in question.
In general, the appearance of specific symptoms of thyroid disease will depend on what hormones and in what quantity are produced by the organ in question. Well, only an expert should establish an accurate diagnosis, and he will only do this after conducting a full-fledged examination. As part of the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, the following are performed:
- blood test for hormone levels;
- ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland;
- needle biopsy;
But a person himself may suspect the development of a thyroid disease – there are a number of characteristic symptoms that doctors categorically do not recommend ignoring.
Signs of Thyroid Disease
Of course, ideally, each person should undergo preventive examinations with general and narrow-profile specialists once in 6-12 months. But there are a number of signs that will certainly alert and make you visit the clinic for a full examination. These include:
- Violation of psycho-emotional background. It is about the appearance of irritability, despondency, fatigue for no apparent reason. The fact is that it is the level of synthesized thyroid hormones that affects a person’s mood – if it is too low, then bad mood, depression and depression will be clearly visible, but an increased level of hormones leads to anxiety and irritability.
- Weight fluctuationsbut. In general, rapid weight loss or too fast weight gain is the most characteristic sign of the development of thyroid diseases. For example, if a person is experiencing hypothyroidism, then his weight will steadily increase, but with hyperthyroidism – rapidly decrease. Stabilize this state is not possible even with strict dieting.
- Hair loss, changes in the structure of nails and skin. If a person develops hyperthyroidism, then he will definitely complain of skin pigmentation and tightening of the skin in the feet and legs. And in the case of hypothyroidism – brittle nails, dryness and peeling of the skin. A dramatic change in the appearance of hair and hair loss are a sign of any thyroid disease, but all of these changes are reversible – as soon as the health and functionality of the organ in question is restored, the condition of the nails, hair and skin will return to the previous level.
- Fever or chills. Heat and chills constantly changing with each other are also a sign of thyroid disease. The fact is that in violation of the synthesis of hormones by the body in question the body thermoregulation is also violated – if the hormone level is too high, then the patient will complain of a constant sensation of heat and increased sweating, but with a reduced level of thyroid hormones – a feeling of freezing and chills.
- Disorders in the digestive system. Usually, if there are problems with the functioning of the organ in question, all organs of the gastrointestinal tract suffer, for example, the patient may develop chronic constipation or frequent diarrhea, bile stasis and insufficient bowel motility. In addition, diseases of the thyroid gland can trigger the appearance of stones in the gallbladder and bile ducts.
- Body temperature fluctuations. If the patient is progressing hypothyroidism, then his body temperature will be slightly reduced and in normal condition, such a manifestation does not matter. But if, against the background of a steadily lowered body temperature, an infection joins, then you can skip its first signs, which leads to a more severe course of infection and the development of complications. In hyperthyroidism, the body temperature, on the contrary, is slightly increased, the maximum – to subfebrile temperatures.
- Menstrual disorders. This feature is present when the level of synthesized hormones is too high, and when it is low. As a rule, hypothyroidism leads to scanty and rare monthly, but hyperthyroidism is characterized by too frequent menstrual bleeding, shortened menstrual cycle. Almost all women with diagnosed thyroid disease suffer from infertility or miscarriage.
- Problems in the cardiovascular system. If hypothyroidism progresses, then the patient will experience shortness of breath even with slight physical exertion, slow heartbeat, lowering blood pressure. With the development of hyperthyroidism, on the contrary, the patient will complain of heart palpitations, a regular increase in blood pressure, a noticeable pulsation, a feeling of strong pressure on the chest. If hyperthyroidism develops without control from the doctors, no treatment is carried out, then this can lead to the development of quite severe and dangerous pathologies of the heart and blood vessels.
- Eye symptoms. This implies the appearance of puzyaglaziya, photophobia, lacrimation and rare blinking – these symptoms appear with severe hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. Patients complain of decreased visual acuity and a feeling of distention of the eyeball. But never in the eyes does not appear pain syndrome – this is a sign of completely different pathologies. If the disease of the thyroid gland progresses and no treatment is carried out, then the patient develops a pronounced eye glaze.
- Headaches and dizziness. When an imbalance of the hormones synthesized by the thyroid gland, fluctuations in blood pressure and vegetative-vascular disorders often occur. It is these factors that provoke frequent headaches and light dizziness for no apparent reason.
- Puffiness of face. In hypothyroidism, a person has a malfunction of the heart, and this, in turn, leads to impaired metabolic processes and insufficient blood flow – this is the cause of edema. It is noteworthy that specifically in case of violations of the thyroid gland, swelling of the face appears only at night, and after awakening the patient, they themselves disappear.
- Neck swelling. If the thyroid gland grows in size, nodes grow on it or tumor processes are progressing, then the patient will change the timbre of the voice, cough will appear, problems with swallowing even soft foods and fluids will occur. If against the background of these symptoms, a clear swelling of the neck has appeared, then this indicates the development of any pathology of the thyroid gland – it is necessary to consult a doctor as a matter of urgency.
- Violation of potency. The thyroid gland synthesizes hormones that regulate and control the functioning of the reproductive system. Therefore, with the progression of any disruption in the functioning of the endocrine system in question in men and women, sexual desire decreases, and stable impotence often develops.
- Pain in the joints, increased bone fragility. Periodically arising joint pains and the lack of diagnosis of any disease of the musculoskeletal system should alert the person – most likely, the thyroid gland produces too little calciotonin. It is a violation of calcium metabolism that leads to changes in the structure of bone tissue – hence the pain in the joints of unexplained etiology.
- Numbness, tingling and sore muscles. Such health problems occur on the background of hyperfunction of the thyroid gland – protein metabolism is disturbed, which leads to pain in the muscle tissues, and hormone imbalance provokes a violation of the process of nerve impulses – hence numbness and tingling.
It should be understood that when at least one of the listed signs of thyroid gland malfunction occurs, it is necessary to immediately seek medical help. Modern medicine successfully treats the pathologies of the organ of the endocrine system under consideration, but only if the call to the specialist was timely.
Tsygankova Yana Alexandrovna, medical commentator, therapist of the highest qualification category
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