With the deviation of pressure in one direction or another, a person’s internal organs deteriorate, there is discomfort, which negatively affects the health. To avoid hypotension and hypertension, it is necessary to know the norms of a person’s pressure depending on gender, age, and general physical condition.
Human pressure depends on gender, age and individual characteristics.
Age pressure standards
Blood pressure refers to the force with which blood pushes against the vascular walls. The indicators are influenced by gender, the constitution of a person, the level of physical activity, the numbers of blood pressure are very different by year.
Minor fluctuations in data in a healthy person are due to stress, overwork, lack of sleep, physical exertion, caffeine drinks, spicy and salty foods can affect the value.
The main parameters of blood pressure:
- Systolic, upper, cardiac – occurs at the time of release of blood from the heart. The optimal values are 110–130 mm Hg. Art.
- Diastolic, lower, renal – displays the pressure force in the vessels during a pause in heart contractions. Values should be between 80–89 mm Hg.
- If you subtract the lower values from the upper indicators, you get a pulse pressure. The average value is 35–40 units.
The rate of pressure and pulse in men and women
In obese people, blood pressure is usually somewhat higher than normal, with asthenic physique data is lower than the average. For people of old age, older than 60, indicators of 145–150 / 79–83 mm Hg are considered optimal. Art. The increase in values is associated with vascular lesion with atherosclerotic plaques, the heart muscle wears out, and it pumps blood worse.
Arterial indicators – the value of a purely individual, many people feel good with low and high rates. Therefore, each person needs to know their working pressure, fix the values at which their state of health worsens.
How to calculate the pressure?
To find out the optimal indicators of pressure, you can use the table, or the special formula
Where SAD is systolic values, DBP is blood pressure, n is the number of full years, m is body weight in kg.
Volynsky formula is suitable for determining pressure in people aged 17–80 years.
How to measure blood pressure?
I use tonometers to measure pressure. The most accurate is the mechanical tonometer, which is used by doctors. It is difficult to use it at home, since special skills are required to properly listen to Korotkov’s tones. Automatic models are fixed on the elbow or wrist, they are easy to use, but the probability of measurement error is high.
The best option for self-measurement of blood pressure is a semi-automatic tonometer, which differs from the mechanical model only by the absence of a pump, the measurement results are reflected on the electronic screen, the error is minimal.
How to independently measure the pressure with a mechanical tonometer:
- Sit down, your back should be straight, lean on the back of the chair, feet put on the floor.
- Secure the tonometer cuff 3-4 cm above the elbow.
- Put your hand on the table, it should be on the same level with the line of the heart.
- Fix the head with a stethoscope on the cubital fossa, insert the tips into the ears – the heartbeat should be well heard.
- Rhythmically start pumping air pump to the level of 200-220 mm, the cuff should not squeeze the arm.
- Slowly lower the air from the cuff, the value in which the first pulse will be heard, means systolic blood pressure.
- With the disappearance of the pulse beat fix diastolic blood pressure value.
After the measurement is completed, it is necessary to calculate the pulse pressure, the data recorded in a special diary. To reduce the probability of error to a minimum, the procedure should be carried out at the same time, since the values of blood pressure may vary depending on the time of day.
Major errors in pressure measurement
To get the right values, you must not only use the tonometer correctly, but also follow some rules.
How to avoid mistakes when measuring blood pressure:
- 30–40 minutes before the measurement starts, you need to calm down, sit down or lie down.
- An hour before the procedure can not smoke and drink caffeinated beverages.
- It is not necessary to measure pressure immediately after a meal — the values may increase by 10–15 units.
- Before measuring blood pressure, you should visit the toilet – a full bladder can distort the performance by 6-10 points upwards.
- While the tonometer is on the arm, you cannot talk, move, gesticulate.
Do not drink or smoke before measuring pressure.
For a more accurate result, the measurement should be carried out on both hands, the measurements should be made again in a quarter of an hour on that limb, the goni of the tonometer was higher.
When do I need to see a doctor?
For any serious pathological changes in the body, a change in arterial parameters occurs, the pulse sometimes rises to 150 beats per minute. Doctors believe hypertension and hypotension are equally dangerous diseases, since each of them can cause complications.
How to recognize hypertension:
- frequent bouts of headache that occurs in the occipital region;
- dizziness, dark spots before the eyes – unpleasant symptoms occur when changing the position of the body;
- increased sweating, lethargy, deterioration of sleep quality;
- deterioration of attention, memory, unreasonable attacks of anxiety;
- shortness of breath, frequent nosebleeds;
- face constantly turns pale or red.
The combination of two or more signs – a good reason to consult a doctor. If these symptoms are accompanied by high blood pressure, diagnose hypertension. The initial degree of arterial hypertension is an increase in blood pressure to 140–159 / 90–99 mm Hg. Art. for several days amid general deterioration of well-being.
Frequent headaches and high blood pressure may indicate hypertension.
In case of hypotension, a person experiences constant fatigue and apathy, extremities are cold, sweat, numb, hypotonics almost always react to changes in weather conditions, do not tolerate loud sounds and bright flickering light. Hypotension is accompanied by headache, which is localized in the frontal and temporal region, dizziness, fainting, mood swings. In women, there are failures in the menstrual cycle, in men, problems with potency begin.
With a steady decline in performance to the level of 105/65 mm Hg. Art. in adults, and 80/60 units in children, doctors diagnose hypotension.