The female organism of reproductive age functions cyclically. The final stage of this cycle is monthly bleeding. They indicate that the egg is not fertilized, and pregnancy did not come. The regular menstrual cycle indicates coherence in the work of the female body. The delay in menstruation is an indication of some failure.
The girl first menstruation takes place at the age of 11 to 15 years. The first time may be delays, not related to the pathology. The cycle normalizes after 1-1.5 years. Pathology includes the onset of menstruation at the age of less than 11 years, and also if it has not started at the age of 17. If this age is 18-20 years old, then there are problems that may be associated with impaired physical development, ovarian hypoplasia, malfunction of the pituitary gland and others.
Serious women’s health issues include:
- irregular cycle;
- hormonal disorders
- frequent delays of 5 to 10 days;
- alternation of scarce and heavy bleeding.
A woman needs to acquire a menstrual calendar, which will indicate the beginning and duration of bleeding. In this case, it is easy to notice the delay of menstruation.
The problem of delays in girls and women
Delayed menstruation is considered a failure in the menstrual cycle, when the next bleeding does not occur at the right time. The absence of menstruation for 5 to 7 days does not apply to pathology. This phenomenon occurs at any age: adolescent, childbearing and premenopausal. The reasons for the delay in menstruation can be both physiological and abnormal causes.
Natural causes of puberty include irregular menstruation for 1–1.5 years when the cycle becomes established. In childbearing age, the physiological causes of delayed menstruation are pregnancy and the breastfeeding period. During premenopause, the menstrual cycle gradually decreases, frequent delays turn into a complete extinction of the reproductive function in the female body. Other reasons for the delay of menstruation are not physiological and require the advice of a gynecologist.
Causes of delayed menstruation
Most often, the delay in menstruation of women who have sex lives is associated with the onset of pregnancy. Also, for a short time, there may be a pulling pain in the lower abdomen, an increase and tenderness of the mammary glands, drowsiness, a change in taste preferences, morning sickness, and rapid fatigue. Rarely appear bloody brownish discharge.
Determine pregnancy can be using a pharmacy test or blood test for hCG. If the pregnancy is not confirmed, then the delay in menstruation could be triggered by other reasons:
- Stress. Each stressful situation, for example, associated with conflicts, work problems, anxiety due to study, can provoke a delay of 5–10 days or even longer.
- Overwork, which is often combined with a stressful situation. Of course, physical activity is good for the body, but if it is excessive, it can affect the regularity of the menstruation. Exhaustion, especially in combination with an exhausting diet, adversely affects the synthesis of estrogen, which can lead to a delay in menstruation. Signs of overwork are also migraines, rapid weight loss, deterioration of performance. If, due to physical overwork, there is a delay in menstruation, this means that the body signals the need for respite. The delay in menstruation is observed in women who work at night or with a slippery work schedule, which involves processing in the days when it is necessary. The cycle is normalized independently when the balance between diet and physical activity is restored.
- Lack of weight or, conversely, overweight. For normal operation of the endocrine system, a woman should keep her BMI normal. Delayed menstruation is often associated with a deficiency or excess weight. In this case, the cycle is restored after the normalization of body weight. In women with anorexia, menstruation can disappear forever.
- Change the usual life situation. The fact is that the body’s biological clock is very important for the normal regulation of the menstrual cycle. If they change, for example, as a result of flying to a state with a different climate or starting work at night, there may be a delay in periods. If a change in the life rhythm causes a delay in menstruation, it normalizes on its own within a couple of months.
- Colds or inflammatory diseases can also affect menstruation. Each disease can adversely affect the regularity of the cycle and cause a delay in menstruation. This may be acute for chronic diseases, ARVI or any other health problems in the previous month. The regularity of the cycle will be restored within a couple of months.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disease accompanied by a hormonal disruption, which causes irregular menstrual bleeding. Symptoms of polycystic are also excessive hair growth in the area of the face and body, problem skin (acne, oily skin), excess weight and difficulty with fertilization. If the gynecologist determines the cause of delayed monthly polycystic ovary syndrome, he prescribes a course of oral hormonal contraceptives, which contributes to the settlement of the menstrual cycle.
- Any inflammatory or neoplastic disease of the genital organs. In addition to the delay of menstruation, inflammatory processes are accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen and uncharacteristic secretions. They need to be treated on a mandatory basis: such diseases are fraught with complications and even the development of infertility.
- Cyst of the corpus luteum of the ovary. To get rid of it and restore the menstrual cycle, the gynecologist prescribes a course of hormonal drugs.
- Postpartum period. At this time, the pituitary hormone produced by prolactin, which regulates the production of breast milk and inhibits the cyclic work of the ovaries. If after birth there is no breastfeeding, menstruation should begin in about 2 months. If the lactation is improving, then the monthly, as a rule, return after its completion.
- Artificial abortion. In this case, the delay of menstruation is common, but does not apply to the norm. In addition to the dramatic hormonal changes in the background, its causes can be mechanical injuries, which only a doctor can detect.
Malfunction of the thyroid gland also provokes irregular menstruation. This is due to the fact that thyroid hormones affect the metabolism. With their excess or deficiency, the menstrual cycle is also lost.
Elevated levels of thyroid hormones are characterized by:
- weight loss;
- increased heart rate;
- excessive sweating;
- unstable emotional background;
- sleep problems.
With a lack of thyroid hormones, the following symptoms occur:
- weight gain;
- the appearance of puffiness;
- constant desire to sleep;
- causeless hair loss.
If there is a suspicion that the delay in menstruation is triggered by a malfunction of the thyroid gland, you should consult an endocrinologist.
Taking certain medications can also cause a delay in menstruation. The main ones are:
- Oral hormonal contraceptives – the most common cause of failure of the menstrual cycle, associated with medications. The norm is the delay in menstruation in the interruption of their use or when taking inactive drugs.
- Emergency contraceptive drugs can cause the absence of menstruation for 5 to 10 days, which is associated with a high content of hormones.
- Chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of oncology.
- Corticosteroid hormones.
- Calcium channel blockers prescribed in the treatment of hypertension.
- Omeprazole to combat gastric ulcer causes a side effect in the form of a delayed menstruation.
Between the ages of 45 and 55, most women enter a climax phase. This is evidenced by the absence of menstruation for a year or more. But menopause never occurs suddenly: for several years before, there is an irregular menstruation and frequent delays.
There are still some signs of approaching menopause:
- dry vaginal mucosa;
- increased night sweats;
- unstable emotional background;
- hot flashes.
How to normalize the problem with monthly delays
To determine the correct treatment for menstruation delay, first of all you need to identify its cause, the elimination of which will help to normalize the cycle. For the treatment of premenstrual syndrome and the normalization of hormonal background, a course of hormonal preparations is prescribed, which:
- Get rid of problems with conception associated with insufficient luteal phase.
- Help restore ovulation.
- Some symptoms of PMS are reduced: irritability, swelling and tenderness of the mammary glands.
If the delay in menstruation is associated with any disease, its treatment will contribute to the settlement of the cycle. Of the preventive measures are the following:
- With a delay of menstruation due to physical overwork or stressful situation, you can restore the balance of the body by rest, as well as a sufficient amount of sleep. It is important to maintain a positive mood and calmly relate to events that can trigger stress. The help of a psychologist will also help.
- Nutrition should be balanced with the necessary content of vitamins and trace elements. You can also drink a course of multivitamins.
- Keeping a calendar of menstruation will help keep track of any changes in the cycle.
- Preventive visits to the gynecologist can prevent any abnormalities in women’s health.
A woman in reproductive age must follow the regularity of the cycle. Any violation in the body contributes to the development of various diseases.
Delay of menstruation. When to see a doctor
With the abolition of hormonal contraceptives, a visit to the doctor is required when the cycle is not restored for several months. When the delay of menstruation associated with lactation, consult with a gynecologist is necessary in the case when menstruation does not occur a year after delivery.
In addition to the gynecological examination, the doctor may prescribe the following examinations:
- Measuring and scheduling basal temperature changes to see if ovulation was on this cycle or not.
- Blood test for hCG and various hormones.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs, which will help to identify the pregnancy or tumor of the female organs, which caused a delay in menstruation;
- CT and MRI of the brain to exclude ovarian and pituitary tumors.
If non-gynecological diseases are identified that caused the delay in menstruation, consult other specialists.
Varieties of monthly delays
Monthly delays vary in their duration. After taking emergency contraceptive pills, the delayed menstruation can last 14 days or more. The same period is characteristic after the injections of the hormone drug Progesterone, the active ingredient of which is synthetic progesterone. It is prescribed for deficiency in the female body of the corpus luteum. Progesterone helps reduce uterine contractions. When taking it, only the doctor prescribes the dose and determines the rate of delayed menstruation.
After discontinuation of oral hormonal contraceptives, recovery of the menstrual cycle lasts from 1 to 3 months. During this period, the delay is considered the norm for a week or more: birth control pills change the cyclical nature of the uterus and ovaries. To clarify the work of the ovaries, the doctor sends a woman to an ultrasound.
With diseases of the urogenital system, also contributing to the delay of menstruation, the discharge becomes brown with a sour smell. They are accompanied by a pulling pain in the lower abdomen. Normally, menstruation may begin with a slight brownish discharge.
Delayed menstruation may indicate the latent course of certain diseases of both the genital and internal organs. Of gynecological diseases that may not manifest themselves in addition to the delay of menstruation can be identified: erosion, myoma, cyst, inflammatory process.
Prolonged delay of menstruation for 1-2 months can be caused by dysfunction of the adrenal glands, pancreas, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Problems with these organs have a direct effect on the maturation of the egg. When they begin to produce an insufficient amount of hormones, this ultimately leads to ovarian dysfunction.
Ovarian hyperthrombosis with the absence of menstruation for several cycles can be observed when taking or after the abolition of hormonal contraceptives and drugs for the treatment of endometriosis. The cycle, as a rule, is restored independently in some months.
Often, menstrual bleeding is accompanied by blood clots. Consultation with a specialist is necessary when it is regularly and accompanied by painful sensations.
Folk remedies for the treatment of delayed menstruation
Folk methods of effective treatment of delayed menses are rather peculiar. The use of such funds must be agreed with the doctor, so as not to harm the body. First of all, you should make sure that you are not pregnant: taking herbal medicines can cause miscarriage.
Popular folk remedies to help cause menstruation: