Vyksa Nizhny Novgorod Region
The world of mushrooms is very diverse. Mushrooms are not only white, Berezovik, Asinoviki, Milk mushrooms, Mushrooms and other small ones that we meet in the forest. Mushrooms make up the largest group of plant organisms of a special type: from the simplest, the smallest, almost invisible to the simple eye, threads and mold to giants of cap-shaped ones – and are characterized by a peculiar structure and reproduction. What we call a mushroom is one part of the mushroom organism, its fruit body. The other part is the mycelium, on which the above-ground fruit body develops, hidden in the ground or rotten wood. The fruiting body of the mushroom and mycelium consists of long thin filiform plexuses – hyphae. Breeding mushrooms spores breed. The spores are in the tubular and lamellar fungi in the lower layer of the cap, and in the marsupial fungi on the entire smooth and cellular (in the bags) surface of the cap, for which these latter got their name. Spores, separated from the fungi and falling into the soil, under favorable conditions, like the seeds of cereal plants, germinate into a thin thread, which later, branching and growing, forms a mycelium. After some time, the mycelium begins to bear fruit — fruit bodies appear on the soil surface — the mushrooms that we collect. However, mushrooms can also multiply in pieces of mycelium if placed in favorable conditions.
Mushrooms grow everywhere: in the forest, in parks, squares, gardens, in the field, in the meadows, in the deserts, in the mountains, in the soil, on the stumps, roots and trunks of trees, in the water. They are distributed from the polar regions to the hot tropics and are known in all parts of the world.
According to approximate estimates, only 3000 species of various mushrooms grow in Russia alone.
Among them are lower and higher, useful and harmful, edible, inedible and poisonous. On the territory of our country edible mushrooms, for example, there are about two hundred species.
The role of fungi in nature and in human life is very different. So, low-organized mold fungi can cause diseases of cultivated agricultural and forest plants, animals and humans. They affect food, building materials, industrial products. At the same time, lower fungi can be quite beneficial. They are widely used in medicine, veterinary medicine and in the protection of plants from pests and diseases. A variety of mold fungi is a source of penicillin, which has already saved millions of human lives. Mushrooms are components of valuable food. Bakery, production of fermented milk products, brewing, winemaking are based on the use of various fungal yeasts.
In the book offered to the reader, only a small group of hatched mushrooms used for food is described, and some inedible and poisonous mushrooms that have an external similarity to edible ones. It tells only about those mushrooms that grow mainly in the forest zone of the northern and central regions of the European part of Russia.
Hat mushrooms are the highest, most developed among all the representatives of their kind. These include all tubular, lamellar and marsupial mushrooms. See photo.
Tubular mushrooms are called, in which the underside of the cap, resembling a sponge, consists of small, usually round tubules. These mushrooms have fleshy fruit bodies. Among them are edible, inedible, and to some extent, poisonous.
A large group of mushrooms belongs to the lamellar ones, which are united by a common feature – the presence of plates on the underside of the cap. Most of these mushrooms are edible, but some of them can be eaten only after proper cooking. There are also poisonous, causing severe poisoning, dangerous to health and even to human life.
To the marsupial mushrooms are all morel and ordinary line, which are considered conditionally edible.
In terms of taste and food qualities, the edible mushrooms described in this book fall into four categories. The first includes: white fungus, mushrooms, real milk and yellow mushrooms, the second – Berezovik (except soft marsh form), Osinovik, boletus, dark blue (mauve), white podruzdok, wave pink, champignon ordinary and smooth; to the third – a soft bog-shaped Berezovik, mokhoviki, goat, black goose, parsley, faded mlecchus, chanterelle, walui, autumn shade, all morel and ordinary line, russula; to the fourth – all the rest, used mainly for salting.
Mushrooms are not only very tasty, but also nutritious. No wonder they are sometimes called vegetable meat. We know what an important role in our diet is played by proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. So, all these nutrients needed by the human body are present not only in bread, milk, meat, fish, eggs, vegetables and fruits, but also in mushrooms. The content of proteins and fats mushrooms richer potatoes, cabbage and beets. In dried champignons, white, birch, aspen, and butter, in marinated white and salted mushrooms, there are more proteins than in meat and fish. It should only be noted that squirrels are concentrated in caps and that young mushrooms are more valuable.
In addition to proteins and fats, various vitamins needed by humans were found in mushrooms. The white mushroom is especially rich in them. Vitamins B, B, A and some others are found in it. Vitamin A is in chanterelles and camelina, vitamins of group B – in champignon, in chanterelles, buds and other mushrooms. A lot of vitamin P in Osinovik and Berezovik – almost as much as in yeast and liver, and vitamin D in mushrooms, no less than in butter. Professor MK Khokhryakov in his book Harmful and Useful Mushrooms writes that “antibiotics were found in the white mushroom, which are deadly for Koch sticks and intestinal sticks that cause diarrhea. Along with this, scientists have found that the white fungus contains anti-tumor substances. ”
Mushrooms contain many valuable minerals for the human body. Honey, champignons and chanterelles contain zinc and copper. Calcium and sodium in mushrooms are few, but in terms of the amount of potassium, phosphorus and sulfur, mushrooms surpass not only vegetables, but also some fruits. Fungi have a lot of extractives, there are free amino acids and specific, specific to mushrooms, aromatic substances that stimulate appetite, increase the secretion of gastric juice and contribute to the fact that other foods consumed simultaneously with the mushrooms are better digested and absorbed by the body.
So, in mushrooms there are a lot of valuable and useful substances. But the presence of fungal fiber, impregnated with chitin, reduces the absorption of nutrients. Fiber is not only not digested itself, but also complicates the access of digestive juices to the rest of the food mass. Therefore, it is not recommended to use mushrooms as an indigestible product in case of a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. It is necessary to warn against the use of mushroom dishes and persons suffering from cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases and eczema. It must be remembered that mushrooms are good food for a healthy person.
About pickling mushrooms at home with photos.