History of phosphorus
Phosphorus was discovered in 1669 by the alchemist from Hamburg Hennig Brand, who conducted experiments with evaporation of human urine, trying to get a philosopher’s stone. The substance formed after numerous manipulations turned out to be wax-like, unusually bright, with shimmer, burning. New substance was given the name of phosphorus mirabilis (from the Latin miraculous carrier of fire). A few years later, Johann Kunkel received phosphorus, and also, independently of the first two scientists, R. Boyle.
General characteristics of phosphorus
Phosphorus is an element of the XV group of the period III periodical system of chemical elements
Being in nature
Phosphorus is found in sea water and the earth’s crust mainly in the form of minerals, of which there are about 190 (the most important are apatite and phosphorite). Included in all parts of green plants, proteins, DNA.
Physical and chemical properties
Phosphorus is a non-metal with high chemical activity, it practically does not occur in a free form. There are four modifications of phosphorus – red, white, black and metallic.
Daily need for phosphorus
For normal functioning, an adult’s body should receive 1.0-2.0 g of phosphorus per day. For children and adolescents, the norm is 1.5-2.5 g, for pregnant and lactating women it increases to 3.0-3.8 g (calorizator). The daily need for phosphorus increases during regular sports training and during physical exertion.
Foods rich in phosphorus
The main suppliers of phosphorus are fish and seafood, cottage cheese, cheese, nuts, legumes and cereals. Garlic and spinach, carrots, parsley, pumpkin and cabbage, berries, mushrooms and meat, beef liver and chicken eggs contain enough phosphorus.
Signs of phosphorus deficiency
Lack of phosphorus in the body is characterized by fatigue and weakness, may be accompanied by loss of appetite and attention, frequent catarrhal diseases, anxiety and fear.
Signs of excess phosphorus
Signs of excess phosphorus in the body are bleeding and hemorrhage, anemia develops, and kidney stones develop.
Useful properties of phosphorus and its effect on the body
Phosphorus provides normal growth of the bone and dental tissues of the body, supports them in a healthy state, also participates in protein synthesis, plays an important role in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Without phosphorus, muscles cannot function, and mental activity does not occur.
When taking mineral complexes, it is worth remembering about the best balance of phosphorus and calcium (3: 2), as well as the fact that an excessive amount of magnesium and iron slows down the process of phosphorus absorption.
The use of phosphorus in life
Phosphorus is widely used in industry and agriculture, primarily because of its flammability. It is used in the production of fuels, matches, explosives, phosphate fertilizers and the protection of metal surfaces from corrosion.