Candidiasis in the oral cavity, what the disease is, the causes of the disease, the symptoms,
Candidiasis affects not only the oral cavity, it can affect large areas of the skin, the mucosa of internal organs, the cells of an organ, the vagina, the male sexual organ. All this bacteriological unfavorable yeast-like army of fungi according to statistics occurs in 80% of cases in people of different ages. Note that with certain types of candidiasis, the nature of the disease may be asymptomatic, thereby postponing the moment of correct diagnosis and the possibility of acquiring additional diseases of the body, initially caused by thrush.
What forms does oral candidiasis have?
The manifestation of red ulcers in the corners of the mouth (which can often be seen in children), is called – Angular stomatitis. First of all, its carriers are more often children, because as a rule, this age group pulls everything into the mouth and the infection that gets along with dirty fruits, vegetables, berries and through dirty hands develops in the form of stomatitis.
If the plaque that is white in the oral cavity is dense and cannot be removed in any way from the surface of the tongue, the inner walls of the cheeks, this is a form of chronic candidiasis called Hyperplastic.
The palatal and lingual part (focal red blurred spots) is pronounced in bright red, attributed to Erythematous candidiasis.
Aphthous stomatitis – stomatitis, which most often can be repeated and transmitted genetically. The cause of aphthous stomatitis is still not fully understood. It is inherently not the cause of viruses, bacteria. But allergies to certain types of bacteria that exist in the oral cavity may be a factor for the occurrence of aphthous stomatitis. An ulcer can be considered an allergic reaction to food. Aphthous stomatitis is caused by the immune system itself. The immune system harms the body itself, using the body’s defense mechanisms against the disease and is distorted due to damaged cell information. Due to such an intricate mechanism, the destruction of normal cells of the oral cavity and tongue with the body of the palate occurs.
[wn] Formation of ulcers in the mouth of different sizes with aphthous stomatitis, divided into groups according to the size of the ulcers. [/ wn]
The first group includes ulcers with a small diameter. Mostly up to 10 millimeters. In 80% of cases of gangrenous manifestations of ulcers. The incubation period is 7 – 10 days.
The second group includes larger ulcers with a diameter of more than 10 millimeters. It occurs in 10% of cases. The incubation period lasts from 10 days to one month. After treatment, the skin remains a noticeable surface in the form of a healed wound.
The third group includes multiple small ulcers (a group of ulcers) in the size of less than 3 millimeters. In 10% of cases. The incubation period is 7 – 10 days.
Candidiasis in the mouth, the causes that can cause this disease
As it was written above in a form of candidiasis, namely Angular Stomatitis, candidiasis can be caused by dirty hands, unwashed vegetables, fruits, and berries, mainly in childhood.
On stomatitis in the corners of the mouth, it may appear after visiting the dentist. Conducting dental procedures such as removal, filling, prosthetics and other, most often contact with the mucous corners of the mouth, may be accompanied by micro-cracks, any infections that may be in the air flow, or through a poorly processed medical instrument. Transmission of infection from a previous patient. Such cases are not very significant, but there is a place to be.
With normal, normal content of Candida albicans yeast, which are present in all people in normal conditions, including in the oral cavity, exist when they are controlled by good bacteria. Beneficial bacteria “monitor” the level of all kinds of bacteria, including candidiasis. But with certain body dysfunctions, the beneficial bacteria malfunction and then the microflora is disturbed. Violation of microflora, mucous is, a favorable environment for the growth of yeast fungi of the genus Candida.
Candida, also known as thrush, which can also be caused to a low degree by infection with the fungi Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata.
Let’s try to find out in more detail what the microorganism CANDIDA is after all. Candida is a family of unicellular microorganisms. Related to the so-called imperfect fungi. Why imperfect? All other fungi of the genus Candida lodge in groups, form a kind of colony (mycelium), and this infectious microorganism is individual and grows in a special bag inside the cell of an infected organ.
Another interesting feature is Candida fungus. As soon as an unfavorable environment begins for them, the conditions of reproduction in the human body (antifungal therapy), it immediately covers its shell with a dense protective layer and forms chlamydospores. Candida is able to adapt to various environmental influences. Easily transmitted in various ways, from one person to another.
Since Candida is the most common among infectious bacteria, it most often causes the disease. In normal microflora, where the fungus lives in the body in normal conditions, it is not active, being part of the normal state of microflora. Yeast fungus is oval or round in inactive state.
With changes in the direction of the breeding of the Candida fungus, they begin to change, their shape changes significantly from round to oblong, rod-like. The rods begin to continuously divide and multiply. When divided, they form a series of chains of pseudomycelium.
Penetrating into the middle of the epithelium covering the mucous membrane of the mouth and the whole pharynx, it begins to actively proliferate, and simultaneously destroy healthy cells of mucous membranes. Dryness, pain, and burning in the oral cavity are caused by the secretion of specific enzymes of fungi, which destroy the proteins, carbohydrates and fats of human cells by splitting. The stronger the process of destruction of the oral mucosa, the more unpleasant the above listed symptoms become.
What can so reduce the content of beneficial bacteria and increase yeast fungi. Provocateurs for thrush can be corticosteroid drugs, antibiotics, persistent dryness in the mouth, increased pressure (blood pressure), elevated blood sugar levels.
- Diabetes – increased, high blood sugar.
- Corticosteroid drugs – drugs derived from cortisol, a human hormone. Pain relief and suppression of inflammation are the main functions of these drugs.
- Antibiotics – a group of substances taken to suppress negative bacterial microflora.
- Dryness in the oral cavity – dry term in the mouth is xerostomia. Dry mouth significantly reduces normal volumes of production, salivation. As a consequence, the inflammation of the soft tissues, due to the small amount of saliva secreted, irritates the soft tissue of the oral mucosa, microcracks are formed. Any lesion of the mucosa leads to good throughput for infectious bacteria.
The low content of vitamins of group B, C (PP), they are synthesized by bacteria in the body.
- Intestinal dysbiosis – a violation of the beneficial microflora of the intestinal mucosa, inevitably leads to the presence of candidiasis disease factor.
- Prosthetic stomatitis – the development of thrush is often associated with the wearing of dentures. Dentures often get food. Accumulated food under the prosthesis is subject to the acidic and alkaline environment of the oral cavity, decompose, cause the growth of bacteria. Inflammation of the oral tissues leads to the reproduction of Candida fungi.
- Smoking – Smoking affects the infection of candidiasis in the mouth. Research has confirmed the fact that tobacco can contribute to this process.
- Pregnancy – pregnancy, of course, is not a disease and a bad factor, but it is during this period from 1 to 9 months that a woman’s resistance and inhibition of various bacteria is significantly reduced due to a weakened immune system.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma – a corticosteroid group of drugs is prescribed for the treatment of this disease, as a rule, it is inhalation. Inhalation is carried out using gaskets and nozzles. If you do not rinse the mouth cavity each time and do not rinse the nozzle after each use, the risk of developing candidiasis is large enough.
Symptoms of candidiasis in the oral cavity
Yeast infection thrush (candidiasis) is different in its symptoms. From yellow, cream, whitish color of the oral cavity, to the curd consistency of white, dense plaque on the mucous of the mouth, lips. Thrush of the mouth causes a loss of flavor spectrum, increased sensitivity to smoked, spicy, acidic foods, causing pain, burning and leaving a very unpleasant taste in the mouth of the cavity, along with a bad odor from the mouth (halitosis).
An attempt to erase whitish thick patches leads to the fact that the surface of the tongue and the inner mucous walls of the cheeks begin to bleed, red inflammatory foci of infectious areas appear, the oral mucosa brings pain, not only at the time of eating, drinking, but even in a calm state .
Toddlers suffering from thrush of the mouth cause severe irritation of tender skin, and it is difficult to cure them with various medical ointments, it is practically unrealistic.
Oral candidiasis must be treated, since it can not be limited to this. Getting from the mouth to the gastrointestinal tract, infectious bacteria spread to various organs.
Treatment of oral candidiasis, mucous tissues
As in all other diseases, before you assign the correct course of treatment, you need to confirm the diagnosis. This can only be done by a doctor who will carefully listen to the patient’s complaints. The method of scraping the lingual surface will take an analysis of the epithelium and the possible presence of infectious bacteria in it. To confirm the diagnosis, you need to take blood to determine the sugar in the blood of the patient. Only after receiving the test results, a course of treatment is prescribed.
To cure candidiasis, you first need to come to grips with the treatment of possible identified diseases in the body that contribute to the growth and active growth of bacteria. It is impossible to treat the secondary manifestation without curing the primary one. Not getting rid of one cause of the disease, the second will be constantly repeated, thus forming a vicious cycle of the appearance of candidiasis again. Diseases of the digestive tract, leukemia, diabetes mellitus can be the root cause of candidiasis.
Oral candidiasis is treated by a dentist and periodontist. In all other diseases of candidiasis, infectious disease specialists and mycologists deal with it.
We will give some examples of drugs involved in the treatment of candidiasis in the mouth. And we recall that only a doctor can prescribe the correct, effective and safe method of treatment.
Candidiasis is treated with systemic drugs. The drugs have antifungal and anti-inflammatory effect. Inhibition of yeast-like fungi Candida is the main task of these medicines, but not only in the oral region, but also in other organs affected by fungi.
Antifungals – antifungal drugs are divided into imidazoles and antibiotics.
The course of treatment with these drugs ranges from one to three weeks. Dosage – 50/100 mg per day. In more detail, the doctor prescribes the dosage and duration of the course, depending on the condition of the patient and his age.
- Amphotericin B (intravenous).
Assignment usually takes place according to this scheme. A course of 10 -14 days, 5-6 times a day, one tablet after meals. The best effect is achieved by resorption of tablets. In this way, the effect on mucous membranes is enhanced by direct penetration of the skin cells through the mucosa. Already after 6-7 days, one can notice a significant relief and healing of erosion foci, a decrease in white patches.
Intravenously administered extremely rarely, only in cases where the tablets do not have the proper effect of healing, death of yeast-like fungal candidiasis.
The growth of fungal infections is successfully stopped and blocked by drugs:
- Deca caramel.
All these drugs have the strongest antifungal effect on candidiasis.
Restorative drugs – Vitamins of group B (B6, B2). Vitamins of group C and PP. Calcium gluconate has antiallergic effect that can cause candidiasis in the mouth. All these vitamins reduce the oxidative processes of the body and normalize the protective properties of the body.
Iron preparations – Conference, Ferropleks in a dragee. It is very important to restore the exchange of iron in the body. With candidiasis is significantly impaired.
Immuno-strengthening drugs – Methyluracil, Pentoxil are prescribed as a mandatory prescription for the maintenance and restoration of the immune system. These drugs actively affect leukocytes (production) and the production of globulins which are fighters against various fungi, including candidiasis fungi.
Bactericidal drugs of local action, which include:
Application drugs – Lyugol, Yoditsirin (in solution).
Local aniline dyes – Fukortsin, brilliant green (green), methylene (blue).
Local ointment – Levorinovaya, Nystatinovaya.
- Iodinol with water;
- 2% solution of acid (boric);
- 2% solution of baking soda;
- 2% borax solution.
Solutions for rinsing, very well help to clean the plaque from the mucous membrane, to remove inflammation, to remove the lesions of candidiasis fungi.