Parasites haunt children of all ages – from infants to school age. The parents of an infected child do not always represent the degree of danger faced when diagnosing a baby with Giardiasis. These are small microscopic protozoa, even in a single cluster can cause enormous trouble, the recovery from which will take a lot of time. In order to prevent such problems, you should protect your child from infection in principle.
What is Giardia?
As mentioned above, these are the simplest parasites that live in the intestines or the human liver, feeding on useful microelements. As a result of their vital activity, an infected person has health problems ranging from the usual intoxication to the serious destruction of the internal organs.
Giardia are divided into two types:
- The mobile form of parasites (the second name is vegetative). They have a pear shape, consist of a suction disc and 4 pairs of flagella. Through the disk, the parasite is securely attached to the mucous membrane of the internal organ of the infected. The size of the presented type of parasites does not exceed 20 microns. Their reproduction is carried out by division. Living parasites always come out with the feces of a baby and die within half an hour, which makes it almost impossible to determine them through routine laboratory analysis.
- The second form is fixed or cysts. They feel great in any unfavorable environment for other parasites. Their destruction is possible only through the use of ultraviolet light, quartz treatment or freezing. Theoretically, cysts can be removed by boiling for 10 minutes, but practically no such methods are used.
Important! It is necessary to determine Giardia infection in the initial stages of the disease, since these parasites easily migrate from an infected to a healthy person. Often, these protozoa infect the whole family, and at the same time. Accordingly, all patients are treated without exception, even healthy ones.
Ways of infection
To protect the child from infection, it is necessary to explore all possible ways of infection. So, there are three main methods of infection:
- Contact and household – the child is infected with Giardia from an already sick baby by playing, using household items (towels, dishes, etc.). Children who like to bite their nails, pens or pencils also fall into the risk group.
- Water way of infection – the child simply consumes contaminated tap water. In many cities, the necessary purification is not carried out, which is fraught with infection not only with Giardia, but also other types of parasites. Also, a child may accidentally swallow water from an infected reservoir while swimming. Getting into the esophagus, Giardia moves into the intestine or liver, where it is more convenient and comfortable for them.
- Food path – eating poorly washed vegetables or fruits, the child is at risk of infestation by parasites, some of which are Giardia. Neither should children or even adults eat poorly cooked meat or salted fish.
Important! Watch carefully for what your child eats and what it does during independent games. Prevent infection by explaining their danger and consequences.
How to determine the parasites in a child?
Symptoms of giardiasis in children do not differ from the signs that appear in adults. Therefore, parents should look not only at the behavior of the child and his appearance, but also to himself in particular.
Signs of Giardia in children
The main signs of the presence of Giardia in children include:
- Low-grade body temperature – it does not exceed 37.5 degrees and may rise before going to bed for two weeks daily. In this case, the baby does not complain of pain in the throat, he does not have a cough or runny nose.
- Problems with the gastrointestinal tract – the baby’s parents are worried about indigestion, which is manifested by successive constipation and diarrhea. At the same time, adults are unable to determine what causes nutritional problems and what foods are marked diarrhea or constipation. Such violations for several days can lead to dysbiosis, the treatment of which will take a long time.
A frequent, but not indicative, sign is that the child may be gritting his teeth in his sleep. The presented sign is often refuted by scientists, but in most cases this symptom is noticed for an infected child. It is explained by the defeat of the central nervous system to one degree or another.
- The kid quickly gets tired, complains of weakness in the limbs, does not concentrate on a specific lesson. In schoolchildren during the period of infection with giardiasis, the performance is significantly reduced, since there are impaired memory.
- A child may complain of abdominal pain. The younger child can not indicate the localization of pain, it can only be determined by probing. An older child specifically indicates pain in the right hypochondrium, which may indicate
- For the baby noticed bouts of suffocative cough, which occurs for no apparent reason.
- The child has an increase in lymph nodes, for which there are also no prerequisites – he does not have a cold, his throat is not red.
- The child may become covered with a rash of an allergic nature, which is explained by the increased content of eosinophils in the blood – special substances that the blood produces in the body to combat parasites.
Take a closer look at the behavior of the baby. If the child is still too small, he will be capricious and characteristically push the legs to the stomach, which indicates pain. Basically this happens after a short rest on the stomach.
Parasites in the liver: symptoms in children
Often Giardia settle in the liver, moving into the body through natural blood circulation. Such an infection leads to several distinctive symptoms, which include:
- A child has a “tongue wrapped around it” – a raid appears in the mouth. There may be no plaque – characteristic ulcers or acne appear instead.
- Baby often vomits, and often in the vomit is present in the discharge of bile.
- If the liver is damaged, the organ increases, which is manifested by the same pain in the abdomen, in the right hypochondrium. A characteristic enlargement of the liver or spleen (which also increases as a result of damage to internal organs) is determined by palpation.
Liver damage is determined by all the signs that are presented in the paragraph about the general infection with Giardia. More precisely about the localization of parasites will tell the results of the completed comprehensive examination.
How to detect parasites
No less important in the topic in question is how to pass the analysis on the lamblia in a child, if it is already known that parasites live in the feces for only 30 minutes. Of course, even dead individuals can be detected through laboratory research, but it is much harder to do this.
Delivery of feces
Be that as it may, pediatricians, after listening to complaints from the child or his parents, still send patients for laboratory analysis of excreted feces. Carry it out according to the standard method, but in the absence of a result, the presence of parasites is determined using enzyme immunoassay.
Collecting feces in this case should take place in the following sequence:
- The collected biomaterial, which was removed from the body of an infected child, has just been placed in a sterile jar.
- The resulting material must be delivered to the clinic within 20 minutes, which is not always the case.
- Maximum – laboratory technicians conduct a standard study, if after collecting the material 2 hours have not passed, as indicated on the jar (indicate the time of collection of the biomaterial).
It should also be remembered that only cysts can be found in the feces, which, unlike the vegetative form of parasites, can live longer than half an hour.
In especially neglected cases, when the child has the strongest signs of infection by parasites, the baby is subjected to an examination of the intestine – fibrogastroscopy, which is often carried out under general anesthesia, if the baby is still too small. This method allows you to make the collection of biomaterial: both natural waste, and part of the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, the method allows you to visually determine the state of the intestinal walls, which, when damaged by parasites, are characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane and even mechanical damage.
How to donate blood
To determine giardiasis, a child needs to donate blood for analysis, which allows to determine the level of eosinophils and other antibodies secreted with blood to combat various parasites. According to the rules of delivery, the following is recommended:
- Blood is taken in the morning on an empty stomach. The child should not be given food, sweets and other goodies. The maximum that a child can consume in the morning is water. In “critical” situations it is allowed to drink tea without sugar, milk and other food additives.
- It should also be noted that before taking tests it is forbidden to eat food for 10 hours.
The above method of laboratory research, despite its rigor, does not give accurate indicators of the presence of Giardia in the body. Firstly, antibodies can be produced 2-3 weeks after infection, so the results of the examination will not give visible changes. Secondly, even if the child had parasites, the antibodies allocated for their elimination remain in human blood for 2 months.
How, then, to identify the Giardia in a child? Experts in the survey are guided by complex data. This includes tests, urine and blood, symptoms and changes in the child’s behavior, abdominal palpation and the child’s complaints of pain during such an examination.
Important! For greater reliability, analyzes are carried out several times with a difference of 2-3 weeks, often within a month. In the intervals of the specified time, the child undergoes the prescribed treatment, compiled by a specialist so as not to harm the health of the baby.
How to cure the disease in a child
After determining the infection is quite reasonable question arises, how to bring Giardia. After all, with this, too, there are difficulties. Unlike conventional helminth infections, this treatment must include certain stages.
Preparatory stage – diet
Before you take lamblia in a child, it must be put on a diet that prohibits fatty and spicy dishes and foods, sweets, a large amount of flour. The baby needs a complete balanced diet with plenty of cereal porridge on the water. You can give fruits and vegetables in small quantities, but only those that do not cause bloating in the child.
It is important in the process of dieting to restore the intestinal microflora, therefore, whole milk, cabbage or boiled rice is prohibited here. In the course of treatment, it is necessary to use medicinal mineral water, which is purchased in pharmacies. It can be replaced by a special solution taken by children in the period of severe poisoning.
Submitted diets adhere to for two weeks.
Next comes the period of drug therapy, which is appointed only by the attending physician. Do not use drugs without an appointment.
Effective means include:
- Metronidazole is a drug approved for the treatment of children older than 2 years. It is taken within 5 days with a daily dose of 0.4 g, which is divided into three doses.
- Albendazole – the dosage is calculated as 0.015 g per 1 kg of baby weight. The duration of treatment is also 5 days. The drug is approved for use by children of all ages.
- Furazolidone – taken after meals 4 times a day during the week. The daily dosage is calculated as 0.01 g per 1 kg of weight.
- Flamin – all children are allowed, the drug is taken an hour before meals. The duration of treatment is 10 days. The daily dosage of half a tablet is divided into 3 doses.
These funds have many side effects, so if a child gets worse, you should immediately stop using the drug and return to your doctor for another treatment regimen.
After the course of drug treatment has been applied, the recovery stage occurs within two weeks. Intake of certain drugs may be extended depending on the health of the baby. The following drugs are used here:
- Immunity enhancements – Diucifon or Sodium Nucleinate – are used to restore vitality and defense functions that were seriously affected by the activity of the parasites.
- Non-specific protection – zinc sulfate or ordinary pumpkin seeds in unroasted form. These components protect the body from re-infection, which is simply necessary at the initial stages.
- The course of sorbents – Smekta, Polysorb, Polyphepan and other drugs for two weeks. These drugs help to restore the intestinal microflora after the destructive action of parasites.
- During recovery, the child must be given only healthy food. It must be balanced – include in the quantities necessary for the child, proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Treatment of folk remedies
It is necessary to indicate several methods of treatment of giardiasis by folk methods, which are used only after consulting a doctor. To effective recipes include the following options.
Use a little overripe cucumbers, in which there is a large number of seeds. Two hundred grams of cucumbers poured boiling water in a saucepan and cover with a lid. Cover the pot with a towel and leave to infuse for two hours. After the infusion has cooled, put the pan in the fridge. Let the baby drink the infusion throughout the day. Daily dosage – at least half a liter.
Decoction of dandelion roots
Dandelion roots are purchased at the pharmacy or prepared independently. The plant must be washed, dried and crushed. Pour 3 tablespoons of roots with a liter of boiling water and leave to boil for a quarter of an hour over low heat. The broth is filtered and given to the child to drink with the calculation of a teaspoon per 10 kg of child’s weight. Take at least two times a day for 10 days.
Take the grass, rinse, dry and chop it. Pour a tablespoon of the collection in a thermos and pour 0.5 liters of boiling water. Hold the infusion for two hours and strain before use. The medicine is given to the baby in the amount of 1 tablespoon before each meal.
The above methods can be dangerous for children. Often, they simply develop allergies. Therefore, use the selected recipe should be carefully – after the first use, monitor the condition of the baby. If you notice any abnormalities, discontinue treatment immediately.
Komarovsky: treatment of giardiasis
Evgeny Komarovsky has his own opinion on how to treat giardiasis in children. The pediatrician, known to all young mothers, believes that the treatment of the disease should be started only in extreme cases: if the baby has serious symptoms for the presence of parasites and is worried about severe abdominal pain.
Basically, according to Komarovsky, treatment of giardiasis should not begin at all. It is important to simply adhere to proper nutrition, and the parasites will leave the baby’s body on their own. If therapy is prescribed, and doctors always prefer to prescribe only expensive drugs, the choice should be given in favor of Furazolidone.
Prevention of infection with Giardia is carried out in compliance with the following rules:
- It is necessary to monitor the state of food and products that the child consumes and all family members. Be sure to wash fruits and vegetables with special cleaning products that allow you to remove all dirt, including harmful microorganisms.
- Do not let the kid drink plain tap water. It must be filtered or boiled.
- Watch for the child’s personal hygiene. Teach him to wash his hands before eating and every time after the street or visiting public places.
- Wean the baby from bad habits. The child should not suck a finger, bite his nails or objects.
- Do not bathe your baby and do not bathe yourself in reservoirs with a dubious state of water.
To prevent infection in a child, be sure to undergo an examination yourself. In no case do not allow the baby to contact closely with the animal, and after playing, go to wash your hands. If you have a pet, wash floors more frequently with special detergents.
Experts are somewhat distinguished by infection with Giardia and Giardiasis disease. A simple infection can go away on its own, which Dr. Komarovsky always says. But the diagnosis of giardiasis – the presence of parasites in the human body with serious destruction of internal organs – implies a complex treatment, which is carried out by the above methods. If you find vomiting or prolonged diarrhea in a baby, consult a doctor and conduct a proper examination in order to detect the presence of parasites at the initial stages.