Pregnancy is an important period in the life of every woman. This special time is called the flowering of femininity and attractiveness. With good planning, both pregnancy and childbirth in most cases take place without any particular complications. At the stage of preparation for conception, the hormonal background of a woman plays a big role. After all, hormones are responsible for the ability to have children. We will understand what you need to get pregnant, and how they affect the conception of women.
What is responsible for conceiving a child in women?
Hormones are biological substances that are produced by the endocrine system. They control and influence such processes in the body as:
- egg maturation;
- lactation, and more.
The indication for testing for hormonal disorders may be:
- irregular monthly cycle;
- a sharp increase or decrease in weight;
- lack or reduction of sexual desire;
- emotional instability;
- prolonged absence of pregnancy (from six months);
- missed abortion;
- need IVF.
The preparation of the body for conception and childbearing is guided by such hormones as:
- follicle-stimulating (FSH);
- luteinizing (LH);
- thyroid hormones.
This hormone produces a small but very important gland in the brain – the pituitary gland. By entering the bloodstream, FSH affects the growth and maturation of the follicles. The level of this biological substance varies depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. According to him, with great probability is determined such an important for conceiving process as ovulation. Most often, blood donation for the FSH level is prescribed from the 3rd to the 6th day of the cycle, together with the luteinizing hormone.
Pituitary hormone that affects the reproductive system of both women and men. If deviations from the LH norm occur, women do not ovulate, and men do not produce testosterone.
The ratio of FSH and LH, affecting conception and the ability to become pregnant
The hormones of the pituitary FLG and LH in the body of every woman who wants to get pregnant, play a dominant role in the process of conception. They ensure the proper functioning of the ovaries, stimulate them to produce a sufficient amount of estrogen and progesterone.
At the beginning of the cycle, FSH prevails in women, but by the middle there is a sharp increase in the concentration of LH, which provides ovulation. In men, these hormones are responsible for spermatogenesis, but their level almost never fluctuates.
A woman’s menstrual cycle consists of three phases: follicular, ovulatory and luteal.
- In the follicular phase (from day 1 of the cycle), FSH predominates. Its rate is 1.9-11.0 mIU / ml.
- In the ovulatory phase (13–15 day of the cycle), the level of FSH rises to 4.8–20.5 mIU / ml.
- In the luteal phase, the concentration of FSH decreases and varies from 1 to 9 mIU / ml.
During ovulation, the egg leaves the follicle, and a yellow body forms in its place. During this period, there is no need for large amounts of FSH, because the body is preparing for the onset of a possible pregnancy. If conception does not occur, then this hormone begins a new menstrual cycle, preparing the next follicle with an egg cell for fertilization.
If we talk about LH, then in the follicular phase, its work is reduced only to stimulating the ovarian cells that produce estrogen. The rate of PH at this time is 1.4-8.6 mIU / ml. But in the ovulatory phase there is a sharp increase in the concentration of LH to 14.3-75.8 mIU / ml. In the luteal phase, LH declines again to 1–14 mIU / ml.
For pregnancy, it is one of the major hormones that is produced by the ovaries. Progesterone is responsible for proper attachment of the ovum. to the inner wall of the uterus – the endometrium, as well as eliminates the excessive activity of the uterus after the fertilized egg has fixed in it.
If tests show a shortage of progesterone, even with the onset of pregnancy there is a risk of miscarriage due to the detachment of the ovum. The rate of progesterone in early pregnancy is from 12 ng / ml, in late it can reach 172 ng / ml.
The following factors may indicate a lack of progesterone:
- increased uterus tone;
- bleeding from the vagina;
- pulling pains in lower abdomen.
If at least one of these signals occurs, you should immediately consult a doctor. In such cases, gynecologists prescribe inpatient treatment or prescribed to take progesterone tablets in order to raise its level in the blood.
In some cases, an elevated level of progesterone in the blood indicates a multiple pregnancy, and not about health problems.
We offer to watch a video on how progesterone affects the conception of a child and the normal course of pregnancy:
This hormone affects the proper development of follicles. Increasing testosterone can either prevent ovulation, or, if the pregnancy has already come, lead to a spontaneous miscarriage. The blood for the content of this hormone shall be 5-7 days of the cycle.
If testosterone levels are greatly elevated, this may indicate the presence of tumors in the ovaries. and adrenal dysfunction. The reduced concentration of this substance is most often associated with endometriosis and uterine myoma.
This biological substance is also called the hormone of female attractiveness. Estrogen is responsible for the ability of a woman to conceive and bear a child. One type of estrogen is estradiol.
Estradiol is produced by the ovaries. Its level affects the willingness of the uterus to grow with the fetus, reliably protecting it from external stimuli. You can take an estradiol test at any time of the day. The most accurate results are observed before the onset of ovulation. Fluctuations in the level of this hormone can lead to death of the placenta and miscarriage, the development of fetal Down syndrome, fetal hypoplasia.
The main function of prolactin is to prepare the mammary glands for breastfeeding and help other organs produce FSH, thyroid hormones and estrogens. Doctors most often prescribe an analysis to determine the level of the substance in the blood even at the planning stage of pregnancy. A low level of prolactin can be a sign of infertility, and an increased level can signal a hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, pituitary tumors, polycystic ovaries.
TSH is a thyroid-stimulating hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland. It affects the work of the thyroid gland. TSH is responsible for maintaining proper metabolism in the pregnant woman and the fetus. The normal content of TSH in the blood prevents the development of hypoxia in the unborn child and anemia in the mother. TSH also stimulates the production of thyroid hormones such as T-triiodothyronine and T4-thyroxin.
AMH is produced in both female and male body. In future mothers, the ovaries are involved in the production of this substance. AMH regulates the reproductive abilities of the body. This hormone reaches peak values in the body of a woman by the age of 30 and decreases after 40.
What prevents to get pregnant?
Any hormonal disruptions in the body of the future mother can cause inability to conceive and bear a child, because the proper maturation of the predominant follicle, the release of the egg, its ability to adhere to the endometrium, the successful development of the fetus and delivery within the prescribed period depend on the correct balance of hormones in the body.
When a couple cannot conceive a child for a long time, the first thing that the doctor is guided by is the ratio of FSH and LH in a woman’s body. A high level of FSH almost always indicates dysfunction of the reproductive system and the development of infertility.
Can a woman get pregnant with elevated FSH? With an increased content of FSH in the blood, the body receives the appropriate signal and begins to actively reduce the quality of the eggs. This reduces the chances of fertilization, therefore spontaneous pregnancy in women with elevated FSH concentrations is virtually impossible. This problem can most often be solved only with the help of hormone therapy.