Definition: frequent breathing in the first days of life, caused by poor lung development or aspiration of a large amount of fetal lung fluid.
What is the cause of RDS? Rapid breathing (tachypnea) is a sign of abnormality in the lungs. Its causes are residues of lung fluid (transient tachypnea of newborns), insufficient amount of surfactant substance in the lungs, which prevents collapse (respiratory distress syndrome), or infection (pneumonia).
What exactly happens in the lungs? A dysfunction of the lungs occurs: they release less oxygen into the blood and take less carbon dioxide. In some cases, there is a gradual collapse of the alveolar sac, which, as it evolves, worsens the situation.
How does respiratory distress syndrome differ from pneumonia? Pneumonia is caused by an infection. The cause of this syndrome is either an excess amount of fluid in the lungs after birth, or a low content of substances that prevent the collapse of the alveolar sacs.
What research is needed for accurate diagnosis "respiratory distress syndrome"? The diagnosis is confirmed by a chest x-ray, but many similar syndromes on the radiograph look the same. Often, the child’s behavior within a few hours after giving birth can determine the reason for his condition: in a liquid or in collapse. Since there is always a danger of developing an infection, hemogram and bacteriological examination of the blood is done. In the first hours of the disease, regular measurements of blood gases are often carried out to check lung function.
How dangerous is this syndrome and can we expect complete recovery? If the syndrome is limited by the presence of pulmonary fluid, the baby is recovering within a couple of hours after the start of treatment. If the cause of the condition is a reduced surfactant content, which is a serious complication, the child will most likely need respiratory support and a longer treatment. In any case, as a rule, full recovery occurs.
What kind of treatment is required in such cases and what negative effects are associated with it? In most cases, additional oxygen is required and (or) respiratory support is provided by the device. Sometimes a substance is introduced to the child to prevent the collapse of the lungs. If the introduction of artificial surfactant is required, a special breathing tube is inserted into the trachea of the child and the substance is fed directly into the lungs. Then the breathing tube is removed or the respiratory support is left and held: either through special pins inserted into the nose, or through an oscillator attached to the breathing tube. In cases of any lung abnormalities and the need for respiratory support in the lung (lungs), an opening may be formed through which air enters the pleural region (pneumothorax). As accumulation of air presses on the lungs, worsening the general condition. In many cases of such air leakage, it is necessary to use a drainage (pleural) tube that removes air. There are cases of leakage of air inside the lungs themselves (interstitial pulmonary emphysema), under the skin or in the region of the heart. In such situations, there is a need for special drainage tubes or a special oscillator.
How much will the child have to stay in the maternity hospital? Depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of excess fluid or the level of surfactant, the child will have to stay in the maternity hospital from three days to several weeks. Infants with excess fluid and a slight lack of surfactant respond quickly to treatment, and they can soon be discharged. In any case, before discharge, you should resolve all breathing problems and start feeding through the mouth.
Will the syndrome and its treatment weaken the baby’s lungs and will he develop a predisposition to respiratory diseases in the future? Term effects are minimal in term babies or babies born almost on time. In the future, most of them do not experience any breathing problems.
Will I be able to stay in the maternity hospital until our child recovers? Depending on the type of birth, the mother usually stays in the maternity hospital for two to four days. Babies with abundant pulmonary fluid have a greater chance of being discharged along with their mother. Mothers of babies who have a lack of surfactant are discharged, as a rule, before the child recovers.
Is there any need for treatment at home, and if so, who will help us to carry it out? Babies who have not been born much earlier than their age, rarely need any treatment after discharge from the hospital. Premature babies may require supplemental oxygen, intermittent breathing therapy, and in rare cases additional respiratory support. Parents of such children undergo a course of study before discharge and usually stay in the hospital with their children for one or two days. Sometimes after discharge, the nurse helps the parents.
Should a neonatologist (a doctor who supervises newborns) or a pulmonologist (a doctor dealing with lung diseases) consult a neonatologist for a majority of babies placed in the intensive care unit for newborns? If the child requires respiratory support at home, a pulmonologist will advise parents before discharge.
Is the maternity hospital equipped to treat this syndrome, or should we transfer the child to another hospital, more suitable for treating complex diseases? Everything depends on the maternity hospital equipment and the pediatrician’s experience in caring for sick babies. Many small hospitals often try to leave babies with excess fluid who need only extra oxygen and whose condition is stable or improving. If the child’s condition worsens, it is better to transfer it to a large hospital, where there are special wards — the so-called intensive care wards for newborns — and neonatologists (doctors who observe newborns) work.
What kind of follow-up will be needed after discharge from the hospital? It all depends on the age of the baby at the time of birth. If he was born a little ahead of time, you will need to be monitored by a pediatrician. Heavily premature babies are much more likely to need a pulmonologist examination and the advice of a specialist in child development.
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Date: 25-08-2011, 11:44 | Posted by admin-gid | Views: 382 | Comments: 0 | Tags: