Acute bronchitis in a child – the disease is quite frequent and dangerous. Although bronchial inflammation is mild and well treatable, pathology becomes the cause of serious complications. Treat the disease immediately, but do it correctly.
Acute bronchitis symptoms and treatment in children
Physicians call acute bronchitis an inflammatory process that affects the bronchial mucosa.
This disease is characterized by rapid development and has three types, different in symptoms. What is bronchitis visited your child?
Simple sharp. The disease is characterized by inflammation of the bronchi and mucosal lesions. The disease is accompanied by a separation of transparent sputum and does not have bronchial obstruction (bronchial obstruction).
Acute obstructive. Most often, this pathology is observed in children 2-4 years. The disease is accompanied by a pronounced bronchial obstruction (shortness of breath and difficulty breathing). This form is dangerous for its frequent complication – bronchial asthma.
Bronchiolitis. A type of obstructive bronchitis. Inflammation extends to the small bronchi, bronchioles and provokes the development of respiratory failure. Bronchiolitis doctors diagnose even the tiniest babies (up to one year of age).
The development of acute bronchitis in children is directly related to the seasonal epidemic of respiratory diseases (influenza, ARVI, ARD). The peak of the growth of pathology falls on the last days of December and lasts until the beginning of March. According to statistics in 50-90% of cases, acute bronchitis in children becomes a complication of colds..
In every sixth case, the pathology develops into a chronic stage. This happens more often at preschool age if the child is in the category of FIC (often ill children).
Etiology of acute bronchitis in children
Acute bronchitis can be viral and bacterial in nature.
More often the disease of viral etymology is diagnosed in children up to 2-3 years, and in infants, pathology may also have a mixed viral-bacterial nature.
According to the classification of the etiology of the causes of children’s acute bronchitis, made in 2009, the following picture is observed:
- 0-3 months of life: mycoplasma, chlamydia, herpes viruses, cytomegalovirus and enterovirus;
- 0-6 months: chlamydia, mycoplasma;
- 6 months-3 years: parainfluenza type I and type III viruses and respiratory syncytial virus;
- 3 year of life: parainfluenza, coronaviruses;
- 4-8 years: influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial viruses;
- 8-17 years old: mycoplasma, chlamydia.
For all age groups, influenza viruses (A, B, C), rhinoviruses and adenoviruses become the culprits of the disease. This is especially characteristic of the cold season.
What is the risk of acute children’s bronchitis?
The disease itself is not dangerous for the child’s body. Danger is not a disease, but complications, which pathology brings very often.
The culprits of complications are illiterate treatment and attempts by parents to get rid of inflammation themselves. Recklessness of adults leads to sad consequences. Acute bronchitis develops into:
- Pneumonia. Infectious inflammation of acute lung tissue. The infection covers all parts of the lungs (bronchi, alveoli and bronchioles).
- Bronchopneumonia (focal pneumonia). Inflammatory lung disease involving any part of the body in the pathological process. Children often develop bilateral bronchopneumonia.
Complications are more common in preschool children. The risk of their appearance increases passive smoking and living in ecologically unfavorable areas.
The main culprits of the disease
The main causes of the development of acute bronchitis in children is the activity of pathogenic microflora:
- Viral infections (viral acute bronchitis). Influenza, adenovirus, acute respiratory infections and ARVI.
- Bacteria (bacterial acute bronchitis). Moraksella, staphylococcus, streptococcus and pneumococcus.
- Chlamydia and mycoplasma (atypical acute bronchitis). Chlamydia and mycoplasma pneumonia, psitaki.
- Fungi. The rarest form of children’s acute bronchitis. Fungal pathology develops only under the condition of a strong weakening of the body.
Involved in the occurrence of inflammation and chemical / physical factors: passive smoking, smog, prolonged exposure to polluted air filled with carbon dioxide, smoke.
Contact with pollen, animal hair, household dust, household chemicals (the allergic nature of bronchitis) can provoke a disease. The following factors contribute to the development of a children’s illness:
- weakening of immunity;
- regular hypothermia;
- problems with nasal breathing;
- predisposition to allergies;
- weak protective functions of the respiratory system.
Acute bronchitis symptoms and treatment in children
The symptoms of acute bronchitis in children are different and it depends on the type of pathology:
Acute simple bronchitis. This pathology develops after suffering a cold. Therefore, the main symptom of acute bronchitis in children:
- nasal congestion, runny nose;
- malaise, irritability, general weakness;
- temperature increase, but insignificant (up to + 37.5⁰ С);
- occasional cough, accompanied by a sore throat.
In the process of developing the disease, cough is added to these symptoms. At first it is non-productive, dry type. After 2-3 days coughing goes into the wet form. The phlegm has a slimy, transparent appearance. But when attaching a bacterial infection, the mucus becomes yellowish-green.
Acute obstructive bronchitis. The most common cause of acute bronchitis in children:
- difficulty breathing, followed by wheezing and whistling;
- agonizing coughing episodes of dry form (first 7 days of illness);
- at a later stage of the disease, the cough becomes wet with copious mucus secretion.
Acute bronchiolitis. When a child’s small bronchi become inflamed, this process manifests itself in this way:
- increased heart rate;
- creaking breath;
- general weakness and lethargy;
- severe runny nose and nasal congestion;
- subfebrile temperature (+ 37.2-37.5 ° C);
- dry cough, developing into a wet cough after 2-3 days from the onset of the disease;
- cyanosis (blue nasolabial triangle), in very young children can be blue and fingertips.
Treatment of acute bronchitis in children
The only important rule that parents should follow when wondering how to treat acute bronchitis in a child is not to include the hidden talents of the doctor and not to engage in amateur activities. Therapy of acute bronchitis can take place in inpatient and outpatient settings. It all depends on the age and condition of the baby.
Older kids, on the condition of a mild course of the disease, can be treated at home.
But with the obligatory condition of compliance with all recommendations of the pediatrician and maintenance of the treatment regimen:
- Active physical activities are excluded (games, gymnastics, sports).
- It is forbidden to walk in wet and dank weather, as well as at a temperature.
- The rest of the time you can and should walk, but not too much warm the child, do not allow him to overheat.
Treatment of acute bronchitis in children with antibiotics
Only a pediatrician is able to answer the question how much acute bronchitis is treated in children, he also treats a child and he will tell you which antibiotics will help best for acute bronchitis in children. The physician develops an individualized treatment plan based on the age of the small patient, the characteristics of the course of the disease and the state of health. The following drugs are included in the therapeutic course:
Antibiotics. Antibacterial drugs are taken from 2-3 days of illness. Subject to the accession of a bacterial infection (this is evidenced by a change in the color of sputum to yellowish-green and its analysis). The treatment is carried out with the latest generation of antibiotics from the group of penicillins, macrolides and cephalosporins.
Antiviral drugs. In most cases, acute bronchitis comes to the child after suffering a viral disease, physicians must prescribe antiviral medications with immunomodulatory properties:
- up to a year: Anaferon, Kipferon, Imupred, Lafebion, Immunoflazid, Aflubin, Acyclovir.
- 1-2 years old: Groprinosin, Aflubin, Anaferon, Viburkol, Otsillocoktsinkum, Laferobin, Flavozid, Imupret.
- from 6 years old: Kagocel, Amiksin, Hippferon, Influicide, Ridostin, Cycloferon, Engistop, Aflubin, Influicide or Arbidol.
Antitussive and expectorant drugs. When choosing a medication, the pediatrician considers what cough a child has in acute bronchitis:
- for dry cough, the use of antitussives is recommended: Stoptussin, Sinekod;
- when coughing occurs, phlegm diluents are used: Acetal C, ACC or Acetylcysteine;
- For quick removal of mucus accumulated in the bronchi, expectorant drugs are used: Herbion, Lasolvan, Prospan, Fluditec or Bromhexin.
In the treatment of acute bronchitis in children, you must follow a special diet.
Meal should be fractional and frequent, tasty and high-calorie food. It is mandatory to include a warm and abundant drink (homemade fruit drinks, fruit drinks, kissels).
But the products-allergens at the time of treatment is better to exclude from the diet. This is chocolate, citrus, raspberry and honey. If the baby is breastfed, these tips apply to a nursing mother.
In the treatment of acute bronchitis is recommended inhalation procedures. For inhalation it is better to use soda and saline solutions or ready-made products (Atrovent, Salbutamol).
Treatment of acute bronchitis in children folk remedies
For the treatment of acute bronchitis in children, there are a large number of prescriptions. But parents should remember some important rules for using grandma’s methods:
- All inhalations are carried out using nebulizers.. Such favorite steam treatments (breathing over a tank with healing broths, covered with a towel) are not effective for acute bronchitis.
- Thermal heating procedures of any kind (grinding, ointment, wraps, compresses, warming) can not be carried out at elevated temperatures.
- Some effective folk remedies (propolis, honey) are allergens. They should be used with extreme caution.
- All drinks prepared with love by moms should be warm, but not hot.
Children are often otpaivat warmed milk with a variety of additives: soda, goat fat, honey, butter. With a strong wet cough, it is recommended to give children oatmeal (pre-oats must be boiled in milk for a long time). This tasty and nutritious medicine is recommended and when acute bronchitis is treated in adults with folk remedies.
But a dry cough can be relieved by freshly squeezed lingonberry juice and adding sugar or melted natural honey to it.
In acute bronchitis, it is helpful for children to drink infusions or decoctions of healing herbs. This is a lime blossom, viburnum leaves, coltsfoot, black currant. In the manufacture of brew in a glass of boiling water a tablespoon of dry raw materials.
If the child’s temperature does not exceed the norm, it is useful to carry out the following procedures:
- Chest Wrap Oil (except the heart area).
- Compress treatment. It is better to use boiled potatoes with the addition of 2-3 drops of iodine and vegetable oil. You can use any vegetable oil. It is heated, impregnated with a cotton fabric and applied to the body. Top compress compressed with wax paper.
- Put the baby to bed with two warmers on the chest and back. Do not forget to change the water in them in a timely manner, do not allow the heaters to cool.
- Soar legs every evening (you can use mustard powder) and put mustard plasters (but not homemade). Provided that the baby has reached the age of 3 years.
Acute bronchitis is dangerous for its complications. In order to prevent the development of dangerous situations, the treatment should be followed up with preventive measures.
Prevention of acute bronchitis in children
If the disease has visited the child at least once, there is a high probability of its recurrence. To prevent a dangerous situation from returning, arm yourself with the following tips:
- Stick to your daily routine.
- Take daily walks, but with good weather.
- Immediately vaccinate a child in anticipation of an impending flu epidemic.
- Balance the children’s diet, including a lot of fruits and vegetables in the menu.
- Introduce the kid with the basics of hardening, pave the path to the pool or sports section.
- Rid the child of the type of smoking parents. Passive smoking is a common cause of acute bronchitis.
Acute bronchitis in children under one year – how are babies treated?
In an infant, acute bronchitis becomes a consequence of not fully cured acute respiratory infections or flu. How to treat pathology in infancy? After all, the baby’s immunity is still weak, and most drugs are contraindicated. The first thing parents should do is turn to a pediatrician and carefully follow all his recommendations.
Often for the treatment of disease in infants Massage is used as an additional therapy.. Parents can make it, but subject to the rules:
- Before the session, the baby should be given medicine prescribed by the doctor.
- Give the child a warm drink. This will increase the effectiveness of the procedure and contribute to the withdrawal of sputum.
- The best time for a massage is day or morning. If you massage your baby in the evening, at night he will cough and will not have a good rest.
- To avoid overloading the digestive tract, conduct sessions 2 before meals or one hour after.
- The duration of the procedure should not exceed half an hour. It is better to perform a massage 2-3 times a week.
First, warm up the body of baby crumbs with baby oil and proceed to stroking the chest. Movement should be soft with a gradual increase. After the chest go to the upper back area. After stroking, proceed to intense rubbing.
In addition to medication and home massage, the treatment of acute bronchitis in infants is important to drink plenty of fluids. More often let your baby drink warm water, baby tea or juice. Watch for good humidity in the house. This is advised and the famous pediatrician Komarovsky.
Tips for the treatment of acute bronchitis in children by Dr. Komarovsky
The main advice that gives Dr. Komarovsky in the treatment of acute bronchitis in children – it is impossible to cause the mucus formed by the bronchi to dry out. To do this, maintain the correct microclimate in the nursery: the humidity of air is within 50-60% at a temperature of + 18-22⁰ C.
If the doctor suggests using antibiotics for treatment, ask about the advisability of using aggressive agents. According to Komarovsky, in 99% of cases, acute bronchitis is the result of a viral infection, and only 1% of the disease actually requires antibiotics.
Therapy of acute bronchitis in children should include traditional methods: copious warm drinks, taking fever at a temperature and bed rest. But as soon as the child’s condition is normal, pull him out of bed and go for everyday walks.
If cases of inflammation recur, think about what causes recurrence of the disease. Whether parents smoke, whether the child is allergic, what kind of air is in your area. With long-term residence in areas with unfavorable ecology, chronic dust bronchitis develops.
The most important thing is to prevent the recurrence of the disease (chronic bronchitis in children is very dangerous) and not to engage in self-treatment. After all, a successful recovery depends on timely treatment, which can only be prescribed by an experienced pediatrician.
From the video below you will learn some more tips for treating acute bronchitis from Dr. Komarovsky: