Every woman should be aware of the dangerous pathology, which according to statistics, 10-15% of women overtake – ectopic pregnancy. In order to avoid complications, it is necessary to have some knowledge of its occurrence and course. First of all, you need to understand that the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy is quite unpredictable.
This pathology is described in medical benefits from the 11th century. Until recently, the running forms led exclusively to death. Today, with the help of modern surgery, this problem is solved much easier. Functional medical technology allows operations and reduces the risks in operations to almost zero. However, gynecologists all over the world state an increase in the average statistical cases that are difficult enough for diagnosis.
What is an ectopic pregnancy and how does it arise?
In normal pregnancy, the ovum, leaving the fallopian tubes, is attached in the uterus, where it continues to develop until the birth. In pathological pregnancy, a fertilized egg does not enter the uterus. This common pathology does not get tired to surprise doctors. From where it is not necessary to extract the wrongly attached fertilized egg. This may be the fallopian tubes, ovaries, abdominal cavity. The most common ectopic tubal pregnancy.
The delay of the egg in the tubes indicates a lack of permeability. One month after the fertilized egg was attached to the wall of the pipe, having increased in size, it could lead to pipe rupture. In this case, the probability of bleeding with blood entering the abdominal cavity is very high. From now on, the woman’s life is at stake. That is why planning a pregnancy is so important, to undergo a full examination and to eliminate possible violations.
Causes of ectopic pregnancy
Why does this phenomenon occur? How does the egg come off the “course” and end up in a place not designated for development? It is all about the fallopian tubes, the permeability of which is disturbed as a result of any factors. Almost always, this is preceded by abortion or severe childbirth, postponed or recurrent inflammatory diseases of the genitals, infections. The mucous membrane of the uterus in the swollen state is glued together in some places, the pipes lose the ability to contract.
Ectopic pregnancy can occur in case of insufficient development (infantilism). Infantile tubes are long narrow and winding, with narrowed lumens. They are not able to shrink and push the fertilized egg forward to the uterus. At a certain stage, the villi begin to develop in the ovum to attach for development and to receive a constant blood supply. If at a certain time the egg has not arrived in the uterus, it is fastened where it is. The thin and delicate walls of the pipes do not stretch out like the uterine tissues, therefore their rupture soon comes. This happens around the 4-6th week. As a result of the rupture, the blood rushes into the abdominal cavity, nausea and severe abdominal pain, resembling labor. Often there is a loss of consciousness. Broken large vessels can be fatal.
Sometimes the scenario takes place in a different direction, and the fertilized egg, bursting, flows into the abdominal cavity. And along with it, a certain amount of blood may also experience nausea and bloody discharge. Pipe abortion is accompanied by severe pain, which subsides after a while. A woman can relax, thinking that everything is behind. However, it is still too early to rejoice. In any case, it is necessary to urgently turn to specialists to rule out the possible development of peritonitis – purulent inflammation of the abdominal cavity.
Does the test show an ectopic pregnancy?
The test shows an ectopic pregnancy as well as a normal pregnancy! Detect the difference can only be a result of ultrasound. Everything is simply fertilized eggs in the uterus will not, and not finding it on the ultrasound specialists, will conduct additional checks and will be able to diagnose the pathology at the earliest terms. Already in the second week of pregnancy, a deviation can be diagnosed by inserting an ultrasound sensor into the vaginal cavity. Next, diagnostic laparoscopy is assigned, giving the most accurate results. Another method is hormonal blood analysis. After a significant increase in the level of chorionic hormone (HCG) at this time may decrease.
What are the signs (symptoms) of ectopic pregnancy?
Among the first signs – bloody discharge from the vagina (may be minor). Then, painful sensations in the abdomen, increasing with the development of pathology to very strong, sometimes cramping.
Is it possible to determine ectopic pregnancy?
It is difficult to make an exact diagnosis to oneself, but one can suspect that something was wrong by relying on the above signs. If the usual symptoms of pregnancy (delayed months, irritability, toxicosis, a violation of taste preferences and
At the slightest suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy, experts suggest monitoring in the hospital. This should not be abandoned, since the necessary examinations to determine the site of implantation of the embryo are easier to perform in the hospital. In the early stages of detection, doctors will be able to interrupt it in sparing ways.
Treatment of ectopic pregnancy
There are several methods of treatment used at different stages. At the slightest suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy, experts suggest monitoring in the hospital. This should not be abandoned, since the necessary examinations to determine the site of implantation of the embryo are easier to perform in the hospital. In the early stages of detection, doctors will be able to interrupt it in sparing ways.
The low-traumatic method (laparoscopy) is suggested in the case when the ovum has retained the receptacle. Through a small incision in the skin, the desired instrument is inserted. The laparoscope device has an optical system, so all manipulations and the operating field are displayed on the monitor of the device. This is a fairly safe operation. The surrounding tissues and organs do not touch, there is no risk of adhesions and scarring, and there are practically no deaths. The device “sucks” the fetal egg, acting as a mini-abortion. A big consolation for a woman is that such an operation prevents injury to the tube, and after a course of treatment after a while, the woman can become pregnant again.
Save or delete a pipe?
You can save the pipe, if the gap has not yet occurred, or is negligible. When salpingotomy is a closed surgical operation. After it, recovery is much faster, less blood flows, and the patient is in the hospital for much less time, and the procedure itself is less painful. Removal of the tube during the examination is called salpingectomy. This procedure greatly reduces the risk of recurring abnormalities in carrying a child.
In some women (4–8%), pregnancy tissues remain in the cavity of the tubes, so the doctor may suggest the administration of a drug that stops tissue growth. This is methotrexate, a drug sometimes used as an alternative to surgery. It is used in the earliest stages of pregnancy, while pregnancy hormones are still slightly increased. This drug leads to the absorption of pregnancy tissue by the body. Several injections are required, after which bleeding occurs within a few weeks. With early diagnosis of the disease and early surgery, this procedure may not be necessary. The best decision on the appointment of treatment takes a doctor.
Is pregnancy possible after an ectopic pregnancy and what are its features?
After release from an ectopic pregnancy, monitoring and “waiting tactics” are conducted. If only one of the pipes is damaged or removed, the chances of a new pregnancy are quite high. However, they can be reduced if the cause of the disease is not eliminated. It may be an infection or inflammation. They must be cured. With one working tube, you can get pregnant and carry the child well. In about 18 months, 6 out of 10 women become pregnant again.
How long should I wait?
Gynecologists recommend waiting at least three months before trying again. After a serious surgical intervention, you should wait six months to heal all scars. After using methotrexate, you must wait three cycles to ensure that the drug is completely removed from the body.
What are the chances of a recurrence of ectopic pregnancy?
The chances of recurrence of ectopic pregnancy are almost the same as in the first violation: 10-15%. The forecast is rather blurry, since everything depends on the specific body of the woman and the circumstances. Insure against this is almost impossible. However, it is worth paying special attention to the treatment of infections, such as chlamydia, in order to prevent further damage to the fallopian tubes. If a new pregnancy is detected, it is better to consult a doctor as soon as possible so that he can send an ultrasound scan for examination. Make sure the embryo develops correctly this time.