Photos of worms under the human skin

This work program focuses on the use of textbooks on biology and teaching aids on the subject line "Sphere of Life" (concentric course) created by a team of authors under the guidance of

one. The program includes the following sections:

1) Explanatory note, which specifies the overall objectives of basic general education, taking into account the specifics of the subject;

2) General characteristics of the subject, course;

3) Description of the place of the school subject, course in the curriculum;

4) Personal, metasubject and subject results of the development of a particular subject, course;

5) The content of the school subject;

6) Thematic planning indicating the main types of educational activities

7) Description of teaching, methodical and material and technical support of the educational process;

8) The planned results of the study of the academic subject, course.

2. Contains detailed calendar and thematic planning for grade 5

Preview:

Biology. Introduction to biology. Grade 5 (35 hours)

CALENDAR AND THEMATIC PLANNING CLASS 5

Main types of educational activities

Educational methodical and technical equipment, EER.

Forms of organization of educational activities

Meta-objects (UUD, work with text, projects, ICT)

Formation of cognitive interests and motives aimed at the study of wildlife.

The ability to use speech tools to argue their position, point of view.

Knowledge and compliance with the rules of work in the office of biology, safety.

Explain the role of biological knowledge in human life.

Textbook, visual aids, determinants, atlases.

Section 1. Living organism: structure and study (8 h)

What is a living organism.

To form a cognitive interest

To be able to compare the properties of living organisms

Know the properties and the main features of a living organism

Highlight the main features of the living

To name the main differences between the living and non-living

Describe the main functions of living organisms.

Dummies of animals, indoor plants. Electronic supplement to the textbook.

Wildlife science

To develop skills for understanding the value of living objects

To be able to set the task. Determine the value of biological knowledge in modern life.

Know the basic properties of nature

Determine the subject matter of biology

Describe the main directions of biology and the ways of its development

Explain the importance of biology and living organisms in human life

Know what science studies

Electronic supplement to the textbook

Methods of studying nature.

To form a responsible attitude to learning.

To be able to conduct observations, measurements, experiments.

Know the characteristics of biological research methods.

Know the basic methods of studying nature

Acquire observation and experiment skills

Work in a group in the analysis and discussion of the results of observation

Poster "Laboratory Equipment"

Magnifying devices. Laboratory work No. 1 "Device magnifying devices and rules for working with them."

Build skills with magnifying devices

To be able to work with magnifying devices

Know the device of the light microscope, magnifier.

Calling parts of a magnifying glass and a microscope

Describe the steps and rules for working with a microscope

Apply acquired knowledge to study the device magnifying devices in the process of carrying out laboratory work

Apply practical skills in the lab process. work

To record the results of observation, to draw conclusions.

Follow the rules of behavior in the biology room, the rules for handling the lab. equipment

Living cells. Laboratory work №2 "The structure of onion skin scales cells"

To develop skills for comparing living cells.

To be able to find differences in living cells.

Know the main organelles of the cell.

Call magnifying devices, scientists who have contributed to the study of cell structure

Find and analyze information about the cellular structure of organisms

Call the main cell organelles

Know the structure and function of the main organoids

Recognize the main cell organelles on the tables

Microscopes, ready microscopic preparations.

The chemical composition of the cell. Practical work №1 "Determination of the chemical composition of wheat seeds."

Generate a cognitive interest. Form an idea of ​​the unity of the living.

To be able to work with visual material.

Know the chemical composition of the cell, distinguish between organic and inorganic substances.

To name organic and mineral substances

Give examples of proteins, carbohydrates, fats.

Run the lab. the job

"Determination of seed composition"

Record the results of observations

Follow the rules of behavior in the biology room, the rules for handling the lab. equipment

Electronic supplement to the textbook.

Wheat seeds, water. in a glass, napkin.

Substances and phenomena in the surrounding world. Practical work No. 2 "Description and comparison of signs of various substances".

To form a cognitive interest.

To be able to systematize and synthesize different types of information.

Know the difference between substances and phenomena.

Name simple and complex substances, pure substances and mixtures, physical and chemical phenomena.

Compare physical and chemical phenomena

Atom models, magnet, metal objects.

To form a cognitive interest.

Ability to work with different sources of biological information

Know the scientists who made the discoveries.

Know the contribution to the development of the biology of natural scientists

Portraits of C. Linnaeus,

Diversity of living organisms

How life evolved on Earth

To form a cognitive interest

P: Be able to find patterns

The ability to work with the text, select the most important, classify objects

L: the ability to observe discipline, respectful attitude to the teacher and classmates,

R: ability to organize their work, plan actions, develop self-esteem skills and improve performance

To: the ability to listen and engage in dialogue, work in groups and express your thoughts, discuss issues with classmates

Know the stages of development of life on Earth

Photos of worms under the human skin

Call the main periods of life on Earth

Characterize the main representatives of different periods.

Poster, multimedia, kingdom of nature

electronic supplement to the textbook

To form an ethical attitude towards living organisms

To be able to systematize the diversity of the living

P: the ability to give definitions of concepts, classify objects

L: the ability to observe discipline in the lesson, to respect the teacher and classmates

R: the ability to organize the assignments of the teacher. Development of self-esteem and self-assessment skills

Q: ability to perceive information by ear, answer teacher’s questions, engage in dialogue

Know the differences of living organisms from each other

Determine the subject of the study of taxonomy

Identify the hallmarks of the representatives of the kingdoms of nature

Compare kingdom representatives

Draw conclusions based on comparison

Give examples of representatives of different systematic groups.

Posters, dummies, film

electronic supplement to the textbook

To form a cognitive interest

To be able to characterize, explain the role of bacteria in nature and human life

P: ability to work with various sources of information, convert it from one form to another, highlight the most important things in the text, structure the training material

L: the need for a fair assessment of their activities and classmates

R: the ability to organize the assignments of the teacher. Development of self-esteem and self-assessment skills

To: the ability to effectively build interaction with classmates

Know the features of the structure and life

Describe the characteristics of bacteria

Uncover the importance of bacteria in ecosystems, human activities

To apply the rules of personal hygiene in everyday life

Table "Bacterial cell"

electronic supplement to the textbook

To form a cognitive interest

P: To be able to characterize edible and poisonous mushrooms.

The ability to identify the most important things in the text, structure the training material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information

L: be able to assess the level of danger of a health situation, understanding the importance of maintaining health

R: the ability to organize the performance of a teacher’s task, the development of self-assessment and self-assessment skills

To: the ability to work in the composition of creative groups

Know the features of the structure and activity of mushrooms, their importance in nature and human life

Describe the signs of unicellular and multicellular fungi

Establish a relationship between the structure of the vegetative body of the fungus and the way it feeds

Explain the environmental role of fungi in nature

Describe the signs of fungi of various environmental groups

electronic supplement to the textbook

General characteristics of plants. Seaweed.

To form a cognitive interest

P: To be able to characterize the algae

The ability to identify the most important things in the text, structure the training material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information

L: the need for justice evaluation of their work, the aesthetic perception of nature

Respectful attitude to the teacher and classmates

R: the ability to organize their work on the assignments of the teacher, the development of self-esteem skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to effectively build relationships with classmates, engage in dialogue, express their opinions

Know the features of the structure and life of algae

Identify the distinguishing features of representatives of the plant kingdom

Justify the role of plants in nature

Identify the characteristic features of the composition and structure of algae

Describe and compare representatives of unicellular and multicellular algae

electronic supplement to the textbook

To form a cognitive interest

P: To be able to characterize mosses, to distinguish

The ability to identify the most important things in the text, structure the training material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information

L: the need for justice evaluation of their work, the aesthetic perception of nature

Respectful attitude to the teacher and classmates

R: the ability to organize their work on the assignments of the teacher, the development of self-esteem skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to effectively build relationships with classmates, engage in dialogue, express their opinions

Know the features of the structure of mosses

Describe the external structure of mosses,

highlight their essential features

To draw conclusions about the relationship of features of the structure of mosses with habitat

electronic supplement to the textbook

To form a cognitive interest

P: To be able to characterize ferns. Ability to identify the most important things in the text, structure the training material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information.

L: the need for justice evaluation of their work, the aesthetic perception of nature

Respectful attitude to the teacher and classmates

R: the ability to organize their work on the assignments of the teacher, the development of self-esteem skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to effectively build relationships with classmates, engage in dialogue, express their opinions

Know the features of the structure of ferns

Identify representatives of the Fern Department in natural objects, drawings

Establish features of the structure of ferns in connection with their habitat

Describe the role of ancient ferns in the formation of coal

Poster, live plant

electronic supplement to the textbook

To form a cognitive interest

P: To be able to give a characteristic

The ability to highlight the most important things in the text, structure the learning material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information

L: the need for justice evaluation of their work, the aesthetic perception of nature

Respectful attitude to the teacher and classmates

R: the ability to organize their work on the assignments of the teacher, the development of self-esteem skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to effectively build relationships with classmates, engage in dialogue, express their opinions

Know the features of the structure of gymnosperms

Give examples of the most common conifers.

To establish the relationship between the features of the structure and functions of the needles

Find additional information about the representatives of the gymnosperms

Poster, sprigs of coniferous trees, herbarium

Task electronic application to the textbook

Angiosperms (Flowering) Plants

To form a cognitive interest

P: Be able to characterize the angiosperm

The ability to identify the most important things in the text, structure the training material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information

L: the need for justice evaluation of their work, the aesthetic perception of nature

Respectful attitude to the teacher and classmates

R: the ability to organize their work on the assignments of the teacher, the development of self-esteem skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to effectively build relationships with classmates, engage in dialogue, express their opinions

Know the distinctive features of flowering plants

Name and give examples of the basic life forms of plants.

Name and define

To make conclusions about the biological significance of the flower in the life of a plant

Poster, live plants, herbarium

electronic supplement to the textbook

The value of plants in nature and human life

Formation of behavior in nature

P: To be able to recognize the studied objects in nature, to distinguish between medicinal and poisonous plants.

Independently compare and analyze information, give definitions to concepts

L: the ability to choose target and semantic attitudes in their actions and actions in relation to living nature

R: the ability to plan their work in the performance of teacher’s tasks, draw conclusions on the results and carry out correction

K: ability to listen to teachers, classmates, to express their opinions

Know the importance of plants in nature and human life

Give examples of cultivated and wild, forage, technical, ornamental, medicinal plants.

Assess wildlife from an aesthetic point of view.

electronic supplement to the textbook

General characteristics of animals. The simplest

Build awareness of the value of living objects

P: Be able to identify the simplest

The ability to identify the most important things in the text, structure the training material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information

Prepare messages and present the results of your work.

L: the ability to observe discipline in the lesson, respect teachers and classmates, the aesthetic perception of nature, awareness of the value of their health

R: the ability to organize the performance of teacher’s tasks according to the established rules of work in the office, the development of self-assessment skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to work in groups and couples, to enter into dialogue to perform mutual control

Know the distinguishing features

Describe the main features of unicellular

Call representatives of single-celled animals

Poster, microscopes, cultures of aquatic microorganisms

electronic supplement to the textbook

Build awareness of the value of invertebrates

P: Be able to identify invertebrates

The ability to identify the most important things in the text, structure the training material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information

Prepare messages and present the results of your work.

L: the ability to observe discipline in the lesson, respect teachers and classmates, the aesthetic perception of nature, awareness of the value of their health

R: the ability to organize the performance of teacher’s tasks according to the established rules of work in the office, the development of self-assessment skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to work in groups and couples, to enter into dialogue to perform mutual control

Know the distinctive features and significance of invertebrates

Give examples of different systematic groups of invertebrates.

Recognize on natural objects, photos and drawings of invertebrates

Poster, tso, film,

electronic supplement to the textbook

Build awareness of the value of vertebrates

P: To be able to find on posters and systematize vertebrates. Ability to highlight the most important things in the text, structure educational material, correctly formulate questions, work with various sources of information.

Prepare messages and present the results of your work.

L: the ability to observe discipline in the lesson, respect teachers and classmates, the aesthetic perception of nature, awareness of the value of their health

R: the ability to organize the performance of teacher’s tasks according to the established rules of work in the office, the development of self-assessment skills, the correction of results

K: the ability to work in groups and couples, to enter into dialogue to perform mutual control

Know the distinguishing features of vertebrates, their systematics, and their meaning

Give examples of various systematic groups of vertebrates.

Recognize on natural objects, photographs and pictures of vertebrates

Posters, film and

electronic supplement to the textbook

The value of animals in nature and human life

Formation of behavior in nature

P: To be able to find the studied objects in nature.

Independently compare and analyze information, give definitions to concepts

L: the ability to choose target and semantic attitudes in their actions and actions in relation to living nature

R: the ability to plan their work in the performance of teacher’s tasks, draw conclusions on the results and carry out correction

To: the ability to listen to the teacher, classmates

Know the value of animals in nature and in human life

Give examples of domestic, wild, poisonous animals.

Recognize the objects studied in pictures and photos

electronic supplement to the textbook

Main types of educational activities

Educational methodical and technical equipment, EER.

Forms of organization of educational activities

Meta-objects (UUD, work with text, projects, ICT)

Section 3. Habitat of living organisms – 6 hours

Habitat of living organisms.

Three habitats

The ability to maintain discipline in the classroom, respectful attitude to classmates, the ability to argue their point of view.

R: the ability to organize the performance of teacher’s tasks in accordance with the established rules of work in the office.

P: the ability to work with the text, to highlight in it the main thing, to structure the educational material, to classify objects.

K: the ability to listen to the teacher and answer questions, discuss questions with peers.

Knowledge of habitats and their characteristics. The ability to distinguish in the figures and tables of organisms of different habitats.

Call the living environment

Compare living environments

Give examples of the inhabitants of each environment.

Allocate the adaptability of organisms to the habitat

Use information resources for the preparation of messages about the features of the structure of organisms

Life on different continents

The idea of ​​the diversity of the plant and animal world of the planet as a result of the adaptability of organisms to different natural conditions on different continents.

R: Development of skills assessment and introspection. P: the ability to work with various sources of information and convert it from one form to another, work with the text, highlight the main thing in it. K: Mastering the skills of performing in front of an audience.

Knowledge of adaptations of different organisms to habitat in various environments

Compare living conditions on the continents

Give examples of the inhabitants of each continent.

Allocate the adaptability of organisms to living on different continents

Use information resources to prepare messages about "Plants and Animals of Continents"

Natural areas of the Earth.

The ability to apply the lessons learned in practice. Understanding the Importance of Respecting Nature

R: the ability to organize the performance of teacher’s tasks in accordance with the established rules of work in the office.

P: ability to work with didactic materials, classify objects, give definitions to concepts.

Q: ability to listen to the teacher and answer questions, work as part of creative groups, discuss questions with peers.

Knowledge of the continents of the planet and their basic natural features. The ability to find continents on the map. A general idea of ​​the plant and animal world of every continent.

Knowledge of the diversity of flora and fauna in connection with natural conditions (abiotic factors).

Call natural areas

Compare habitat conditions of natural areas

Give examples of the inhabitants of natural areas.

Allocate the adaptability of organisms to the natural area

Use information resources to prepare reports on the “Plants and Animals of the Natural Area …”

Life in the seas and oceans.

Awareness of the role of the oceans on the planet. Understanding the rationality of adaptation of the inhabitants of the ocean to different conditions within it.

R: the ability to organize the performance of teacher’s tasks according to the established rules of work in the office, the development of assessment skills and self-analysis

P: the ability to define concepts. Development of elementary skills of establishing causal relationships. Ability to compare and draw conclusions based on comparisons.

K: the ability to listen to the teacher and classmates, to argue their point of view. Mastering the skills of speaking in front of an audience.

Knowledge of the role of the oceans in the formation of climate on the planet. The distinction in the figures and tables of organisms that live in the upper layers of water, in its thickness and living at the bottom.

Call the vertical arrangement of organisms in the water column

Give examples of aquatic dwellers

Highlight the structural features of the organisms living in the seas and oceans

Use information resources to prepare messages about “life in the seas and oceans”

Section 4. Man on Earth (5 hours)

As a man appeared on Earth.

Formation of cognitive interest

Explain the place and role of man in nature.

Know the stages of human appearance on Earth.

Describe the main stages of human evolution

Characterize the characteristics of the ancestral forms of reasonable man

How man changed the earth.

Formation of cognitive interest and behavior in nature.

Explain the need to protect the human environment, identify environmental causes of environmental problems.

Know how people influenced the world, environmental problems of our time.

Call the main environmental problems of the Earth, Russia, their area

Analyze the effects of human activities in nature

P. 28, 30, pp. 135-145.

Plants and animals listed in the Red Book.

Formation of the foundations of ecological culture.

Identify and give examples of plants and animals listed in the Red Book of Russia and the Ulyanovsk region.

Know the plants and animals listed in the Red Book of Russia, our region.

Know protected areas

Find the differences between OO

Call extinct plant and animal species

Find out which rare and endangered species of plants and animals live in our region

P. 29, pp. 140-142.

Human health and life safety

To create an awareness of the value of a healthy and safe lifestyle.

Provide evidence of the relationship between man and the environment, the dependence of human health on the state of the environment.

Know the natural and social environment of the person.

Explain the reasons for the disappearance of the steppes, forests, marshes, shallowing rivers

Justify the need to comply with the rules of behavior in nature

P. 31, pp. 146-152.

Find information about wildlife in the environment, analyze and evaluate it.

Conduct biological and environmental studies and draw conclusions based on the results.

Observe and describe the phenomena of nature. Present the results of your research.

Know the basics of a healthy lifestyle

Call harm caused to health by smoking, alcohol, drugs

Know the rules of TB in different situations

Know and be able to provide first aid

Notebook, pen, package.

Formation of intellectual skills.

Formation of the ability to see the problem.

Analysis and evaluation of activities in the classroom.

Summer assignment: “My Tree Project”.

Preview:

1. The work program in biology for primary schools was developed in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard of Basic General Education, approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation by Order No. 1897 of December 17, 2010; registered by the Ministry of Justice of Russia on February 1, 2011 No. 19644; an exemplary curriculum in academic subjects “Biology Grades 5-9” (second generation standards) M., Enlightenment, 2011; author’s curriculum

This work program focuses on the use of textbooks on biology and teaching aids on the subject line "Sphere of Life" (concentric course) created by a team of authors under the guidance of

The goals of biological education in primary school are formulated at several levels: global, meta-subject, personal and subject, at the level of requirements for the results of mastering the content of subject programs.

Global goals of biological education are common for primary and high school and are determined by social requirements, including changes in the social situation of development – increased information overload, changes in the nature and methods of communication and social interactions (the volumes and methods of obtaining information generate a number of features of the development of modern adolescents). The most productive from the point of view of solving the tasks of the development of a teenager are socio-moral and intellectual maturity.

In addition, global goals are formulated with consideration of consideration of biological education as a component of the education system as a whole; therefore, they are the most common and socially significant.

Given the above approaches, the global goals of biological education are:

  • socialization of students as an entry into the world of culture and social relations, ensuring the inclusion of students in a particular group or community – the carrier of its norms, values, orientations, mastered in the process of exploring the world of living nature;
  • introduction to the cognitive culture as a system of cognitive (scientific) values ​​accumulated by society in the field of biological science.

In addition, biological education is designed to provide:

  • orientation in the system of moral norms and values: recognition of the high value of life in all its manifestations, its health and other people; environmental awareness; nurturing a love of nature;
  • development of cognitive motives aimed at obtaining new knowledge about wildlife; cognitive personality traits associated with the assimilation of the foundations of scientific knowledge, mastering the methods of nature research, the formation of intellectual skills;
  • mastering key competences: educational, informative, value-semantic, communicative;
  • the formation of students’ cognitive culture, mastered in the process of cognitive activity, and aesthetic culture as the ability to value-emotional relation to objects of living nature.

Basic educational technologies:

– Technology problem – dialogical learning

– Productive reading technology

– Information and communication technology

– Person-Oriented Technologies

1) frontal survey

2) test tasks

with a clear choice of answer,

with a multiple answer,

3) written test

2. General characteristics of the course of biology (5-9)

The course of biology at the stage of basic general education is aimed at developing in students an understanding of the distinctive features of living nature, its diversity and evolution, and man as a biosocial being. The program is compiled in accordance with the main provisions of the system-activity approach to learning. The selection of content was carried out taking into account the culture-like approach, in accordance with which students should master the content that is significant for the formation of a cognitive, moral and aesthetic culture, the preservation of the environment and their own health; for everyday life and practical activities.

In grade 5, students will learn how wildlife is different from non-living, get a general understanding of the structure of biological science, its history and research methods, the kingdoms of living organisms, habitats of organisms, moral norms and principles of attitude to nature. They receive information about the cell, tissues and organs of living organisms, about living conditions and the diversity, distribution and significance of bacteria, fungi, plants and animals.

In grade 6, students receive knowledge about the diversity of living organisms, their differences from objects of inanimate nature. The course deals with the structure and life of organisms belonging to different kingdoms of nature, especially the interaction of objects of animate and inanimate nature. Students will learn about the practical significance of biological knowledge as a scientific basis for nature conservation, nature management, agricultural production, medicine and health care, biotechnology, and production systems based on the use of biological systems.

In the 7th grade, students receive in-depth knowledge of the structure, life activity and diversity of bacteria, fungi, plants, animals, viruses, the principles of their classification; they get acquainted with the evolution of the structure of living organisms, the interrelation of the structure and functions of organs and their systems, with the individual development of organisms.

In the 8th grade, students receive knowledge about a person as a biosocial creature, its formation in the process of anthropogenesis and the formation of a social environment. It gives a definition of the systematic position of a person among living beings, his genetic connection with animal ancestors, which allows students to realize the unity of biological laws, their manifestation at different levels of organization, understand the relationship between the structure and functions of organs and systems. Knowledge about the features of the structure and functioning of the human body, obtained in the course, scientifically substantiate the need to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The course pays great attention to the sanitary-hygienic service, protection of the natural environment, personal hygiene. The inclusion of information on psychology will allow you to more efficiently organize educational, labor, sports activities and leisure, it is easier to fit into the peer team and become a person.

In grade 9, students receive knowledge about the basic laws of life at all levels of its organization, become familiar with modern achievements in the field of biology, realize the place of man in the biosphere and his responsibility for the state of nature. The course also covers the basics of cytology, genetics, breeding, the theory of evolution.

3 Place the school subject in the basic curriculum.

Number of study weeks

For the course of training – 280

4. The results of the academic subject of study

The activity of an educational organization in teaching biology should be aimed at achieving the following personal results for students:

1) knowledge of the basic principles and rules of attitude to wildlife, the basics of a healthy lifestyle and health-saving technologies;

2) the implementation of a healthy lifestyle;

3) the formation of cognitive interests and motives aimed at the study of wildlife; intellectual skills (to prove, build reasoning, analyze, compare, draw conclusions, etc.); aesthetic attitude to living objects.

The meta-subject results of mastering by graduates of the basic school biology program are:

1) the ability to work with different sources of information: the text of the textbook, popular science literature, dictionaries and reference books; analyze and evaluate information, convert it from one form to another; mastering the components of research and design activities, including the ability to see the problem, raise questions, put forward hypotheses, define concepts, classify, observe, conduct experiments, draw conclusions and conclusions, structure the material, explain, prove, defend your ideas;

2) the ability to organize their learning activities: determine the purpose of the work, set tasks, plan – determine the sequence of actions and predict the results of the work. To carry out control and correction in case of detection of deviations and differences when comparing the results with a given standard. Evaluation of the results of work – the selection and awareness of students of what has already been learned and what else is to be mastered, the awareness of the quality and level of learning;

3) the ability to choose target and semantic attitudes in their actions and actions in relation to living nature, their health and those around them;

4) the ability to listen and engage in dialogue, to participate in collective discussion of problems; integrate into a peer group and build productive interaction with peers and adults; the ability to adequately use speech tools for the discussion and argumentation of their position, to compare different points of view, to argue their point of view, to defend their position.

The subject results of mastering graduates of the basic school program in biology are:

• allocation of essential features of biological objects (distinctive features of living organisms; cells and organisms of plants, animals, fungi and bacteria; human organism; species, ecosystems; biosphere) and processes (metabolism and energy conversion, nutrition, respiration, excretion, transport of substances, growth, development, reproduction, regulation of the vital activity of the organism, the circulation of substances and the transformation of energy in ecosystems);

• bringing evidence (arguing) of the relationship of man with mammals; the relationship of man and the environment; the dependence of human health on the state of the environment; the need to protect the environment; observance of measures to prevent diseases caused by plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and viruses, injuries, stress, HIV infection, bad habits, disorders of posture, vision, hearing, infectious diseases and colds;

• classification – determination of the belonging of biological objects to a certain systematic group;

• explanation of the role of biology in the practical activities of people; the place and role of man in nature; kinship, common origin and evolution of plants and animals (for example, the comparison of individual groups); the role of various organisms in human life; values ​​of biological diversity for the conservation of the biosphere; mechanisms of heredity and variability, manifestations of hereditary diseases in humans, speciation and fitness;

• distinction on the tables of parts and organelles of the cell, organs and systems of human organs; on living objects and tables of flowering plant organs, organs and organ systems of animals, plants of different departments, animals of certain types and classes; most common plants and domestic animals; edible and poisonous mushrooms; plants and animals dangerous to humans;

• comparison of biological objects and processes, the ability to draw conclusions and conclusions on the basis of comparison;

• detection of the variability of organisms; adaptation of organisms to the environment; types of interaction of different species in the ecosystem; interrelations between the structural features of cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and their functions;

• mastering the methods of biological science: observation and description of biological objects and processes; staging biological experiments and explaining their results.

2. In the value-orientation sphere:

• knowledge of the basic rules of behavior in nature and the basics of a healthy lifestyle;

• analysis and assessment of the consequences of human activities in nature, the impact of risk factors on human health.

3. In the field of employment:

• knowledge and compliance with the rules of work in the office of biology;

• compliance with the rules of working with biological devices and instruments (dissecting needles, scalpels, loupes, microscopes)

4. In the field of physical activity:

• mastering first aid in poisoning with poisonous mushrooms, plants, animal bites, catarrhal diseases, burns, frostbite, injuries, rescue of a drowning person; rational organization of work and rest; cultivation and reproduction of cultivated plants and domestic animals, care for them; conducting observations of the state of their own body.

5. In the aesthetic sphere:

mastering the ability to evaluate from an aesthetic point of view objects of living nature

Subject learning results

Students should know:

– The main signs of wildlife;

– device of a light microscope;

– major cell organelles;

– the main organic and mineral substances that make up the cell;

– leading naturalists and their role in the study of nature.

– essential features of the structure and activity of the studied biological objects;

– The main signs of representatives of the kingdoms of nature.

– the main habitats of living organisms;

– natural areas of our planet, their inhabitants.

– the ancestors of man, their characteristics, way of life;

– the main environmental problems facing modern humanity;

– rules of human behavior in dangerous situations of natural origin;

– The simplest methods of first aid for burns, frostbite, etc.

Students should be able to:

– explain the significance of biological knowledge in everyday life;

– to characterize the methods of biological research;

– work with a magnifying glass and a light microscope;

– recognize the main organelles of the cell on tables and microscopic preparations;

– explain the role of organic and mineral substances in the cell;

– observe the rules of behavior and work with instruments and tools in the biology classroom.

– determine the belonging of biological objects to one of the kingdoms of nature;

– to establish the features of similarities and differences among the representatives of the main kingdoms;

– to distinguish the studied objects in nature, on the tables;

– to establish the features of the adaptation of organisms to the environment;

– Explain the role of representatives of the kingdoms of nature in human life.

– compare different habitats;

– to characterize the living conditions in different habitats;

– compare habitat conditions in different natural zones;

– identify the features of adaptation of living organisms to certain conditions;

– give examples of the inhabitants of the seas and oceans;

– observe living organisms.

– explain the reasons for the negative impact of human activities on nature;

– explain the role of plants and animals in human life;

– justify the need for measures to protect wildlife;

– follow the rules of behavior in nature;

– to distinguish on living objects, tables, dangerous for human life, plant and animal species;

– to lead a healthy lifestyle and fight the bad habits of their comrades.

Meta-Subject Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to:

– to carry out the simplest observations, measurements, experiments;

– set a learning task under the guidance of a teacher;

– systematize and summarize reasonable types of information;

– draw up a plan for completing the training task.

– to carry out the simplest classification of living organisms for individual kingdoms;

– use additional sources of information to complete the training task;

– independently prepare an oral report for 2-3 minutes.

– to find and use causal relationships;

– build, put forward and formulate the simplest hypotheses;

– select in the text semantic parts and headline them, put questions to the text.

– work in accordance with the task;

– make a simple and complex plan of the text;

– to participate in joint activities;

– work with the text of the paragraph and its components;

– Recognize the studied objects on the tables, in nature.

Personal learning outcomes

– the formation of a responsible attitude to learning;

– the formation of cognitive interests and motives for learning;

– the formation of behavioral skills in nature, awareness of the value of living objects;

– awareness of the value of a healthy and safe lifestyle;

– the formation of the foundations of ecological culture.

Subject learning results

Students should know:

– the essence of the concepts and terms: "cell", "core", "membrane", "shell", "plastid", "organoid", "chromosome", "tissue", "organ", "root", "stem" "Leaf", "kidney", "flower", "fruit", "seed", "organ system", "digestive system", "circulatory system", "respiratory system", "excretory system", "musculoskeletal system "," Nervous system "," endocrine system "," reproduction "; "Soil nutrition", "air nutrition", "chloroplast", "photosynthesis", "nutrition", "respiration", "transport of substances", "excretion", "leaf fall", "metabolism", "cold-blooded animals", " warm-blooded animals, "support system", "skeleton", "movement", "irritability", "nervous system", "endocrine system", "reflex", "reproduction", "sexual reproduction", "asexual reproduction", " budding, hermaphrodite, fertilization, pollination, growth, development, direct development, indirect development; “Habitat”, “environmental factors”, “non-living nature factors”, “wildlife factors”, “food chains”, “food webs”, “natural community”, “ecosystem”;

– the main organelles of the cell, plant and animal tissues, organs and systems of plant and animal organs;

– what is the basis of the structure of all living organisms;

– the structure of parts of the shoot, the main organs of the organs of animal organs, indicate their meaning.

– organs and systems that make up the organisms of a plant and an animal.

– how one or another environmental factor can affect living organisms;

– the nature of the relationship between living organisms in the natural community;

– structure of the natural community.

Students should be able to:

– recognize and show on the tables the main organelles of the cell, plant and animal tissues, the main organs and systems of the organs of plants and animals;

– explore the structure of the main organs of the plant;

– establish the main features of the differences in the structure of plant and animal cells;

– to establish the relationship between the structure of the shoot and its functions;

– to investigate the structure of parts of the escape on natural objects, to determine them on the tables;

– justify the importance of the relationship of all organs and organ systems to ensure the integrity of the body.

– identify and show on the table the organs and systems that make up the organisms of plants and animals;

– explain the essence of the basic processes of vital activity of organisms;

– justify the relationship of life processes among themselves;

– compare the vital processes of various organisms;

– observe biological processes, describe them, draw conclusions;

– explore the structure of individual organs of organisms;

– record your observations in the form of figures, diagrams, tables;

– follow the rules of behavior in the biology classroom.

Meta-Subject Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to:

– work with additional sources of information;

– work with biological objects.

– to organize their educational activities;

– plan your activities under the guidance of a teacher (parents);

– draw up a work plan;

– participate in group work (small group, class);

– search for additional information on paper and electronic media;

– work with the text of the paragraph and its components;

– make a response plan;

– compose questions to the text, break it into separate semantic parts, make subtitles;

– Recognize the studied objects on the tables;

– evaluate your answer, your work, and also the work of classmates.

Personal learning outcomes

– the formation of a responsible attitude to learning;

– the formation of cognitive interests and motives aimed at studying programs;

– development of learning skills;

– the formation of social norms and behavioral skills in the classroom, school, home, etc .;

– the formation and friendly attitude to the opinion of another person;

– the formation of communicative competence in communication and cooperation with peers, teachers, strangers in the process of educational, social and other activities;

– awareness of the value of a healthy and safe lifestyle;

– awareness of the importance of family in a person’s life;

– respect for older and younger comrades.

Subject learning results

Students should know:

– the structure and the basic processes of vital activity of bacteria;

– the variety and distribution of bacteria and fungi;

– the role of bacteria and fungi in nature and human life;

– methods for the prevention of infectious diseases.

– basic concepts related to the structure of pro- and eukaryotic cells;

– structure and basics of fungal cells;

– Features of the organization of a mushroom;

– measures to prevent fungal diseases.

– The main methods of studying plants;

– the main groups of plants (algae, mosses, horsetails, moss, ferns, gymnosperms, flowers), their structure, characteristics of life and diversity;

– features of the structure and vital activity of lichens;

– the role of plants in the biosphere and human life;

– The origin of plants and the main stages of the development of the plant world.

– signs of the body as a complete system;

– the basic properties of animal organisms;

– similarities and differences between plant and animal organisms;

– what is zoology, what is its structure.

– signs of a unicellular organism;

– the main systematic unicellular groups and their representatives;

– the value of single-celled animals in ecological systems;

– parasitic protozoa, diseases caused by them in humans and appropriate preventive measures.

– modern ideas about the emergence of multicellular animals;

– General characteristics of the type Intestinal cavity;

– General characteristics of the type of flatworms;

– General characteristics of the type Roundworms;

– general characteristic of the type Ringed worms;

– General characteristic of the type of Arthropods.

– modern ideas about the emergence of chordates;

– the main directions of chord evolution;

– general characteristics of the Pisces superclass;

– General characteristics of the class Amphibians;

– a general characteristic of the class Reptiles;

– general characteristics of the class Birds;

– a general characteristic of the class Mammals.

– general principles of the structure of viruses of animals, plants and bacteria;

– the route of entry of viruses into the body;

– stages of the interaction of the virus and the cell;

– measures for the prevention of viral diseases.

Students should be able to:

– give a general characteristic of bacteria;

– to characterize the forms of bacterial cells;

– to distinguish bacteria from other living organisms;

– explain the role of bacteria and fungi in nature and human life.

– to give a general description of bacteria and fungi;

– explain the structure of fungi and lichen;

– give examples of the prevalence of fungi and lichens;

– characterize the role of fungi and lichens in biocenoses;

– identify inedible cap mushrooms;

– explain the role of bacteria and fungi in nature and human life.

– to give a general characteristic of the vegetable kingdom;

– explain the role of plants in the biosphere;

– to characterize, the main groups of plants (algae, mosses, horsetails, moss, ferns, gymnosperms, flowers);

– explain the origin of plants and the main stages of the development of the plant world;

– to characterize the distribution of plants in different climatic zones of the Earth;

– explain the reasons for differences in the composition of the phytocenoses of different climatic zones.

– explain the structure of zoological science, the main stages of its development, systematic categories;

– represent the evolutionary path of development of the animal world;

– classify animal objects according to their belonging to systematic groups;

– apply double names of animals in the preparation of messages, reports, presentations;

– Explain the importance of zoological knowledge for the preservation of life on the planet, the breeding of rare and protected animals, the breeding of new breeds of animals;

– use knowledge of zoology in everyday life.

– work with living cultures of the simplest, using magnifying devices;

– recognize unicellular causative agents of human diseases;

– to reveal the value of single-celled animals in nature and human life;

– determine the systematic affiliation of animals to one or another taxonomic group;

– observe the behavior of animals in nature;

– work with live animals and fixed preparations (collections, wet and micro-preparations, stuffed animals, etc.);

– explain the relationship of the structure and functions of organs and their systems, lifestyle and animal habitat;

– understand the relationships that have developed in nature, and their importance for ecological systems;

– allocate animals listed in the Red Book, and contribute to the preservation of their numbers and habitats;

– provide first aid for bites of dangerous or poisonous animals;

– use measures to prevent parasitic diseases.

– determine the systematic affiliation of animals to one or another taxonomic group;

– work with live animals and fixed preparations (collections, wet and micro-preparations, stuffed animals, etc.);

– explain the relationship of the structure and functions of organs and their systems, lifestyle and animal habitat;

– understand and be able to characterize the ecological role of chordates;

– to characterize the economic value of vertebrates;

– observe the behavior of animals in nature;

– allocate animals listed in the Red Book, and contribute to the preservation of their numbers and habitats;

– provide first aid for bites of dangerous or poisonous animals.

– explain the mechanisms of interaction of viruses and cells;

– to characterize dangerous human viral diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, etc.);

– identify signs of similarities and differences in the structure of viruses;

– implement in practice measures for the prevention of viral diseases.

Meta-Subject Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to:

– to work with a textbook, workbook and didactic materials, to compile a paragraph of a textbook before and / or after studying the material in a lesson;

– develop a plan-summary of the topic, using different sources of information;

– prepare oral reports and written abstracts on the basis of generalization of the textbook information and additional sources;

– use Internet search engines.

– make a summary of the paragraph of the textbook before and / or after studying the material in the lesson;

– use biological dictionaries and reference books to search for definitions of biological terms;

– perform laboratory work under the guidance of a teacher;

– to compare representatives of different groups of plants, to draw conclusions based on the comparison;

– to evaluate from the aesthetic point of view of the representatives of the plant world;

– find information about plants in popular science literature, biological dictionaries and reference books, analyze and evaluate it, translate from one form to another.

– to characterize the methods of studying biological objects;

– observe and describe various representatives of the animal world;

– find in various sources the necessary information about animals;

– selectively relate to the biological information contained in the media;

– to compare animals of the studied taxonomic groups with each other;

– use inductive and deductive approaches in the study of large taxa;

– identify signs of similarities and differences in the structure, lifestyle and behavior of animals;

– summarize and draw conclusions on the material studied;

– work with additional sources of information, use Internet capabilities for searching information;

– to present the studied material, using the capabilities of computer technology.

Personal learning outcomes

– development and formation of interest in the study of nature;

– development of intellectual and creative abilities;

– fostering respect for nature, the formation of environmental awareness;

– recognition of the high integrity of life, the health of his and other people;

– development of motivation to obtain new knowledge, further study of the natural sciences.

Subject learning results

Students should know:

– signs proving the relationship of man and animals.

– biological and social factors of anthropogenesis;

– the main stages of human evolution;

– The main features of human races.

– the contribution of domestic scientists in the development of knowledge about the human body.

– The main signs of the human body.

– the role of regulatory systems;

– the mechanism of action of hormones.

– parts of the human skeleton;

– chemical composition and structure of bones;

– The main skeletal muscles of man.

– signs of the internal environment of the body;

– the essence of vaccinations and their meaning.

– Signs of significant transport of substances in the body.

– respiratory organs, their structure and functions;

– hygiene measures and measures for the prevention of lung diseases

– organs of the digestive system;

– hygiene measures and measures for the prevention of disorders of the digestive system.

– features of plastic and energy metabolism in the human body;

– organs of the urinary system;

– measures to prevent diseases of the urinary system.

– The structure and function of the skin;

– hygiene requirements for skin care, nails, hair, shoes and clothing.

– the structure and functions of the organs of the human reproductive system;

– The main stages of prenatal and age development of a person.

– features of the higher nervous activity of man;

– the value of sleep, its phases.

– methods of rational organization of work and rest;

– the negative impact of bad habits.

Students should be able to:

– analyze the structural features of man and apes, the ancient ancestors of man, representatives of different races.

– Recognize the main structural components of cells, tissues on tables and micropreparations;

– establish and explain the relationship between the structure and functions of cells of tissues, organs and their systems.

– identify the essential features of the structure and functioning of the sense organs;

– comply with measures to prevent diseases of the senses.

– recognize parts of the skeleton on visual aids;

– to find the main muscles on visual aids;

– provide first aid for fractures.

– compare the structure and functions of blood cells;

– explain the mechanisms of coagulation and blood transfusion.

– to distinguish and describe the organs of the circulatory and lymphatic systems;

– measure pulse and blood pressure;

– provide first aid for bleeding.

– identify significant signs of the respiratory system, respiratory processes and gas exchange;

– provide first aid for the rescue of a drowning person and carbon monoxide poisoning.

– to characterize digestion in different parts of the digestive system.

– identify significant signs of metabolism and energy conversion.

– explain the mechanism of thermoregulation;

– provide first aid for skin damage, heat and sun shock.

– highlight the essential signs of the human psyche;

– to characterize the types of the nervous system.

– Comply with the standards of personal hygiene and disease prevention;

– provide first aid.

Meta-Subject Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to:

– plan your own learning activities, both independently and under the guidance of a teacher;

– to participate in joint activities (work in small groups);

– work in accordance with the task, plan;

– highlight the main and essential features of concepts;

– to make a description of the objects;

– make simple and complex text plans;

– search and select information in additional sources;

– identify cause-effect relationships;

– work with all components of the text;

– Evaluate your work and classmates.

Personal learning outcomes

– the formation of a responsible attitude to learning, labor;

– the formation of a holistic worldview;

– the formation of awareness and respect for colleagues and other people;

– the formation of communicative competence in communicating with colleagues;

– the formation of the foundations of ecological culture.

Subject learning results

Students should know:

– levels of organization of living matter and scientific disciplines involved in the study of life processes in each of them;

– chemical composition of living organisms;

– the role of chemical elements in the formation of organic molecules;

– properties of living systems and the difference between their manifestations from similar processes occurring in inanimate nature;

– kingdoms of wildlife, systematics and representatives of different taxa;

– The estimated number of known species of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms.

– the ideas of the natural scientists of the Darwin age about the essence of living nature;

– the views of C. Linnaeus on the system of the living world;

– the main provisions of the evolutionary theory of J. B. Lamarck, its positive and erroneous features;

– the teachings of Charles Darwin on artificial selection;

– the teachings of Charles Darwin on natural selection.

– types of protective coloration (hiding, warning) and their importance for survival;

– explain the relative nature of the devices;

– features of adaptive behavior.

– the importance of caring for the offspring for survival;

– definitions of the concepts “species” and “population”;

– the essence of genetic processes in populations;

– the main directions of evolution: biological progress and biological regression;

– the main laws of evolution: divergence, convergence and concurrency;

– the theory of academician A. I. Oparin on the origin of life on Earth.

– stages of development of animals and plants in different periods of the Earth’s existence.

– the driving forces of anthropogenesis;

– the systematic position of man in the system of the living world;

– properties of man as a biological species;

– the stages of formation of man as a biological species;

– human race and their characteristics.

– macronutrients, microelements, their contribution to the formation of inorganic and organic molecules of living matter;

– chemical properties and biological role of water;

– the role of cations and anions in the maintenance of vital processes;

– levels of the structural organization of protein molecules;

– principles of the structural organization and function of carbohydrates;

– principles of structural organization and function of fats;

– The structure of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

– definitions of the concepts “prokaryotes”, “eukaryotes”, “chromosomes”, “karyotype”, “mitosis”;

– the structure of the prokaryotic cell;

– the structure of prokaryotes (bacteria and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria));

– the structure of the eukaryotic cell;

– structural features of plant and animal cells;

– the main parts of the cell;

– Organoids of cytoplasm, inclusions;

– stages of the mitotic cycle and events occurring in the cell on each of them;

– the position of the cell theory of the structure of organisms;

– the biological meaning of mitosis.

– the variety of forms of asexual reproduction and the group of organisms for which they are characteristic;

– the essence of sexual reproduction and its biological significance;

– meiosis and its biological significance;

– The definition of "ontogenesis";

– periodization of individual development;

– stages of embryonic development (crushing, gastrulation, organogenesis);

– forms of the postembryonic period of development: indirect development, development by complete and incomplete transformation;

– the biogenetic law of E. Haeckel and K. Muller;

– A. N. Severtsov’s work on embryonic variability.

– definitions of the terms "gene", "dominant gene", "recessive gene", "trait", "property", "phenotype", "genotype", heredity "," variability "," modification "," reaction rate "," mutations "," grade "," breed "," strain ";

– the essence of the hybridological method of studying heredity;

– types of variability and differences between them.

– The meaning and significance of the phenomenon of heterosis and polyploidy.

– definition of the concept of "biosphere", "ecology", "environment", "habitat", "producers", "consumers", "decomposers";

– structure and components of the biosphere;

– components of living matter and its functions;

– classify environmental factors.

– anthropogenic environmental factors;

– nature of human impact on the biosphere;

– methods and methods of nature conservation;

– the biological and social meaning of the conservation of species diversity of biocenoses;

– Basics of environmental management;

– inexhaustible and digestible resources;

– reserves, reserves, parks of Russia;

– several plants and animals listed in the Red Book.

Students should be able to:

– to give definitions of levels of organization of living and to characterize the processes of vital activity on each of them;

– to characterize the properties of living systems;

– explain how the properties of a living person appear at each level of the organization;

– provide a brief description of the artificial and natural classification systems of living organisms;

– explain why organisms belong to different systematic groups.

– evaluate the value of the evolutionary theory of J. B. Lamarck for the development of biology;

– to characterize the background of the emergence of the evolutionary theory of C. Darwin;

– to define the concepts “species” and “population”;

– to characterize the causes of the struggle for existence;

– to determine the value of the intraspecific, interspecific struggle for existence and the struggle against abiotic environmental factors;

– to assess the natural selection as a result of the struggle for existence.

– to give examples of the adaptive structure of the body, the protective coloring of the skin and the behavior of living organisms.

– explain the reasons for the separation of species occupying an extensive habitat into populations;

– to characterize the process of ecological and geographical speciation;

– assess the rate of speciation in various systematic categories of animals, plants and microorganisms.

– to characterize ways to achieve biological progress: aromorphosis, idioadaptation and general degeneration;

– give examples of homologous and similar organs.

– to characterize the chemical, pre-biological, biological and social stages of the development of living matter.

– describe the development of life on Earth in the Archean, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic eras;

– to characterize the role of upright walking, brain development and labor in the development of man;

– refute the theory of racism.

– explain the principle of action of enzymes;

– to characterize the function of proteins;

– to note the energy role of carbohydrates and the plastic function of fats.

– describe the metabolism and energy conversion in the cell;

– provide a detailed diagram of the process of protein biosynthesis.

– to characterize the metabolism of prokaryotes;

– describe the genetic apparatus of bacteria;

– describe the processes of sporulation and reproduction of prokaryotes;

– explain the place and role of prokaryotes in biocenoses;

– to characterize the functions of cytoplasmic organoids, the value of inclusions in the life of the cell;

– describe the structure and function of chromosomes.

– to characterize the biological value of asexual reproduction;

– explain the process of meiosis, leading to the formation of haploid gametes.

– describe the processes occurring during crushing, gastrulation and organogenesis;

– to characterize the forms of postembryonic development;

– to distinguish the events accompanying the development of the organism with complete and incomplete transformation;

– explain the biological meaning of development with metamorphosis;

– to characterize the stages of ontogenesis in direct postembryonic development.

– use in solving problems of genetic symbolism;

– compose genotypes of organisms and record their gametes;

– to build a scheme of crossing with independent and concatenated inheritance, inheritance coupled with the floor;

– the essence of genetic sex determination in plants and animals;

– to characterize the genotype as a system of interacting genes of the body;

– make the simplest pedigrees and solve genetic problems.

– recognize mutational and combinational variability.

– explain the mechanisms of transmission of traits and properties from generation to generation and the emergence of differences from parental forms among descendants.

– to characterize the Earth’s biomass, biological productivity;

– describe the biological cycles of substances in nature;

– explain the effect of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors;

– to characterize and distinguish between ecological systems – biogeocenosis, biocenosis and agrocenosis;

– to reveal the essence and meaning in the nature of self-regulation;

– describe the process of changing biocenoses and restoring natural communities;

– to characterize forms of interrelations between organisms: symbiotic, antibiotic and neutral.

– to put into practice information about environmental laws in industry and agriculture for the proper organization of silviculture, fish farming, as well as for solving the whole complex of tasks of environmental protection and rational nature management.

Meta-Subject Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to:

– work with a textbook, workbook and didactic materials;

– make a summary of the paragraph of the textbook before and / or after studying the material in the lesson;

– develop a plan-summary of the topic, using different sources of information;

– prepare oral reports and written essays using the information of the textbook and additional sources;

– use Internet search engines;

– perform laboratory work under the guidance of a teacher;

– to compare representatives of different groups of plants and animals, to draw conclusions based on the comparison;

– to evaluate the properties of breeds of domestic animals and cultivated plants in comparison with wild ancestors;

– find information about the development of plants and animals in popular science literature, biological dictionaries and reference books, analyze and evaluate it, translate from one form to another;

– compare and contrast with each other modern and fossil animals of the studied taxonomic groups;

– use inductive and deductive approaches in the study of large taxa;

– identify signs of similarities and differences in the structure, lifestyle and behavior of animals and humans;

– summarize and draw conclusions on the material studied;

– to present the studied material, using the capabilities of computer technology.

– make charts and tables for the integration of knowledge gained;

– summarize and draw conclusions on the material studied;

– work with additional sources of information and use them to search for the necessary material;

– to present the studied material, using the capabilities of computer technology;

– explain the drawings and diagrams presented in the textbook;

– independently draw up diagrams of the processes occurring in the cell and “tie” their separate stages to different cellular structures;

– to illustrate the answer with the simplest diagrams and drawings;

– work with a microscope and make simple preparations for microscopic examination.

– to characterize the genetic methods of studying biological objects;

Personal learning outcomes

– the formation of a Russian civic identity: patriotism, love and respect for the Fatherland, a sense of pride in their homeland;

– awareness of students of responsibility and duty to the Motherland;

– responsible attitude to learning, readiness and ability to self-education;

– formation of motivation for learning and knowledge, the conscious choice of a future profession;

– students should build a further individual trajectory of education based on orientation in the world of professions and professional preferences;

– the formation of a holistic worldview corresponding to the current level of development of science and social practice;

– students’ observance and promotion of the rules of behavior in nature, environmental activities;

– the ability to implement theoretical knowledge in practice;

– awareness of the values ​​of education for everyday life and conscious choice of profession;

– the ability of students to work on the bugs to make adjustments to the acquired knowledge;

– instill a love of nature, a sense of respect for scientists studying the animal world, to develop an aesthetic perception of communication with living organisms;

– recognition by students of the right of each person to their own reasoned opinion;

– students’ readiness for independent actions and actions in the environmental field;

– the ability to reasonably and reasonably defend their point of view;

– a critical attitude to their actions, awareness of responsibility for their results;

5. The content of the subject

Biology. Introduction to biology. Grade 5 (35 hours, 1 hour per week)

Section 1. Living organism: structure and study (8 h)

Variety of living organisms. The main properties of living organisms: cell structure, similar chemical composition, metabolism and energy, nutrition, respiration, excretion, growth and development, irritability, movement, reproduction. Biology – the science of living organisms. A variety of biological sciences. Methods of studying nature: observation, experiment (experiment), measurement. Equipment for scientific research (laboratory equipment, magnifying devices, measuring devices).

Magnifying devices: handheld magnifier, light microscope. A cell is an elementary unit of the living. Nuclear-free and nuclear cells. Structure and function of the nucleus, cytoplasm and its organoids. Chromosomes, their meaning. Differences in the structure of plant and animal cells. The content of chemical elements in the cell. Water, other inorganic

substances, their role in the life of cells. Organic substances and their role in the cell. Substances and phenomena in the surrounding world. Great naturalists.

Laboratory and practical work

Acquaintance with equipment for scientific research.

Conduct observations, experiments and measurements with the aim of specifying knowledge about the methods of studying nature.

Handheld magnifier, light microscope *.

Cell structure (on finished microscopic preparations)

The structure of the skin cells of onion scales *.

Determination of the composition of wheat seeds.

Determination of physical properties of proteins, fats, carbohydrates.

(Italicized material is optional for study.)

Section 2. Diversity of living organisms (14 h)

The development of life on Earth: life in the ancient ocean; coal forests; the heyday of the ancient reptiles; birds and beasts of the past. Variety of living

organisms. The classification of organisms. View. The kingdoms of wildlife: Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, Animals. The essential attributes of the representatives of the main kingdoms,

their characteristics, structure, characteristics of life, habitat, their role in nature and human life. Wildlife Conservation.

Section 3. Habitat of living organisms (6 h)

Land-air, water and soil habitats of organisms. The adaptability of organisms to the environment. Plants and animals of different continents (familiarity with the individual representatives of the wildlife of each continent). Natural zones of the Earth: tundra, taiga, mixed and deciduous forests, grassy plains—

steppes and savannas, deserts, tropical rainforests. Life in the seas and oceans. Surface and water column communities, benthic community, coral reef community, deep-sea community.

Laboratory and practical work

Definition (recognition) of the most common plants and animals using various sources of information (photos, atlases of determinants, stuffed animals, herbaria, etc.).

The study of the structure of plants and animals associated with the habitat.

Acquaintance with the environmental problems of the area and available ways to solve them.

Section 4. Man on Earth (5 hours)

Scientific ideas about the origin of man. The ancient ancestors of man: Driopiteki and Australopithecus. A skilled man. The man is straight erect. Reasonable man (Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon, modern man). Changes in nature caused by human activity. Acid rain, ozone hole, greenhouse effect, radioactive waste. Biological diversity, its depletion and ways to preserve. Desertification and its causes, combating desertification. The most important environmental problems are the preservation of biological diversity, the fight against the destruction of forests and desertification, the protection of the planet from all types of pollution. Human health and safety of life. The relationship of health and lifestyle.

Bad habits and their prevention. Human habitat. Rules of human behavior in dangerous situations of natural origin. The simplest ways to provide first aid.

Poisonous plants and dangerous animals of their area.

Laboratory and practical work

Measure your height and body weight.

Mastering the simplest ways to provide first aid.

Standby time – 2 hours

Biology. Live body grade 6 (35hours, 1 hour per week)

Section 1. Structure and properties of living organisms (11 h)

Theme

Variety of living organisms. The main properties of living organisms: cell structure, similar chemical composition, metabolism and energy, nutrition, respiration, excretion, growth and development, irritability, movement, reproduction.

Theme

The content of chemical elements in the cell. Water, other inorganic substances, their role in cell activity. Organic substances: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, their role in the cell.

Laboratory and practical work

Determination of the composition of wheat seeds.

Theme

A cell is an elementary unit of the living. Nuclear-free and nuclear cells. Structure and function of the nucleus, cytoplasm and its organoids. Chromosomes, their meaning. Differences in the structure of plant and animal cells.

Laboratory and practical work

The structure of cells of living organisms (on the finished microscopic preparations).

Theme

Division is the most important property of cells. The significance of division for the growth and development of a multicellular organism. Two types of division. The division is the basis of reproduction of organisms. The main types of cell division. Mitosis. The main stages of mitosis. The essence of meiosis and its biological significance.

Micropreparations of a chromosome set of humans, animals and plants.

Theme

The concept of "fabric". Cellular elements and intercellular substance. Types of plant tissues, their diversity, importance, structural features. Tissue types of animal organisms, their structure and function.

Laboratory and practical work

Tissues of living organisms.

Theme

The concept of "body". Organs of a flowering plant. External structure and value of the root. Root systems. Root modifications. The structure and value of escape. Kidney – embryonic escape. Stem as an axial organ escaping. Movement of substances through the stalk. Sheet. Structure and function. Simple and complex leaves. Flower, its meaning and structure (perianth, stamens, pistils). Inflorescences. The fruits, their value and variety. The structure of the seeds of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Organ systems. The main organ systems of the animal body: digestive, musculoskeletal, nervous, endocrine, reproduction.

Laboratory and practical work

Recognition of organs of plants and animals.

Theme

The relationship of cells, tissues and organs in organisms. Living organisms and the environment.

Section 2. The vital activity of organisms (18h)

Theme

The essence of the concept of "food". Nutrition features of the plant body. Soil nutrition. Air nutrition (photosynthesis). Features of animal nutrition. Herbivores, predators, carrion; symbionts, parasites. Digestion and its meaning. Features of the structure of the digestive systems of animals. Digestive enzymes and their significance.

The effect of gastric juice on protein. The effect of saliva on starch. Experiments that prove the formation of starch in the light, absorption of carbon dioxide by the leaves, the role of light and water in plant life.

Theme

The value of breathing. The role of oxygen in the process of splitting organic matter and the release of energy. Breath of plants. The role of stomata and lechevichek in plant respiration. The breath of animals. Respiratory organs of animal organisms.

Experiments illustrating the respiration of germinating seeds; root respiration; carbon dioxide detection in exhaled air.

Theme

The transfer of substances in the body, its value. Movement of substances in the plant. Features of the structure of plant organs, providing the process of substance transfer. Features of the transfer of substances in animals. Circulatory system, its structure and function. Hemolymph Blood and its components (plasma, blood cells).

Experience illustrating the movement of organic matter through the stem of a plant. The micropreparations "Structure of blood cells of a frog" and "Structure of blood cells of the person".

Laboratory and practical work

The movement of water and minerals in the stalk.

Theme

Photos of worms under the human skin

The role of excretion in the process of vital activity of organisms. Excretion products from plants and animals. Excretion in plants. Excretion in animals. The main excretory systems in animals. Metabolism and energy.

Theme

The value of supporting systems in the life of organisms. Plant support systems. Animal support systems.

Skeletons of mammals. Cutting bones. Shellfish shellfish. Insect collection.

Laboratory and practical work

A variety of animal support systems.

Theme

Movement as the most important feature of animal organisms. The value of motor activity. The mechanisms that ensure the movement of living organisms.

Laboratory and practical work

The movement of ciliates shoes.

Move the earthworm.

Theme

The vital activity of the organism and its relationship with the environment. Regulation of life processes of organisms. Irritability. Nervous system, structural features. Reflex, instinct.

Theme

Biological value of reproduction. Types of breeding. Asexual reproduction of animals (division of protozoa, hydra budding). Asexual reproduction of plants. Sexual reproduction of organisms. Features of sexual reproduction of animals. Breeding bodies. Sex cells. Fertilization. Sexual reproduction of plants. Pollination. Double fertilization. The formation of fruits and seeds.

Plant propagation methods. Variety and structure of inflorescences.

Laboratory and practical work

Vegetative reproduction of indoor plants.

Theme

Growth and development of plants. Individual development. Distribution of fruits and seeds. State of rest, its importance in plant life. Seed germination conditions. Nutrition and growth of seedlings. Features of the development of animal organisms. Embryo development (by the example of lancelet). Postembryonic development of animals. Direct and indirect development.

Methods of distribution of fruits and seeds. Seed germination.

Laboratory and practical work

Direct and indirect development of insects (on collection material).

Theme

The relationship of cells, tissues and organs in the body. Regulatory activity of the nervous and humoral systems. The organism functions as a whole. An organism is a biological system.

Section 3. Body and environment (2 hours)

Theme

The influence of inanimate nature factors (temperature, humidity, light) on living organisms. The relationship of living organisms.

Collections illustrating the ecological relationships of living organisms.

Theme

Natural community. Ecosystem. Structure and communication in the natural community. Food chain

Models of ecological systems, collections illustrating food chains and networks.

Backup time – 4h.

"Biology. Variety of living organisms. Grade 7 (70 hours, 2 hours per week)

The world of living organisms. Levels of organization and properties of the living. Ecosystems. The biosphere is a global ecological system; boundaries and components of the biosphere. Causes of diversity of living organisms. The evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin on the adaptation to various environmental conditions. The natural classification system as a reflection of the process of evolution of organisms.

Section 1. The Kingdom of Prokaryotes (3 h)

Theme

The origin and evolution of bacteria. General properties of prokaryotic organisms. The variety of forms of bacteria. Features of the structure of the bacterial cell. The concept of types of exchange in prokaryotes. Features of the organization and life of prokaryotes; prevalence and role in biocenoses. Ecological role and medical significance (by the example of representatives of the under-kingdom Real bacteria).

Cell structure of various prokaryotes.

Laboratory and practical work

Sketch of the prokaryotic cell structure scheme.

Section 2. Kingdom Mushrooms (4 h)

Theme

The origin and evolution of fungi. Features of the cell structure of fungi. The main features of the organization of multicellular fungi. Departments: Chitridiomycot, Zygomikot, Ascomicote, Basidiomycot, Omikot; group Imperfect mushrooms. Features of life and distribution. The role of fungi in biocenoses and human activities.

The structure of representatives of various systematic groups of fungi, various representatives of the kingdom Fungi, the structure of the fruiting body of a cap mushroom.

Laboratory and practical work

The structure of the mold fungus mucor.

Recognition of edible and poisonous mushrooms *.

Theme

The concept of symbiosis. General characteristics of lichens. Types of lichen thalli; peculiarities of vital activity, prevalence and ecological role of lichens.

Schemes of the structure of lichens, various representatives of lichens.

Section 3. The Kingdom of Plants (16 h)

Theme

Plant organism as an integral system. Cells, tissues, organs and systems of plant organs. Regulation of plant vital activity; phytohormones. Features of plant life. Photosynthesis. Pigments. Systematics of plants; lower and higher plants.

Demonstration Drawings of the textbook showing the structural features and vital functions of various representatives of the plant kingdom. Schemes reflecting the main directions of the evolution of plant organisms.

Theme

Algae as the oldest group of plants. General characteristics of algae. Features of the structure of the body. Unicellular and multicellular algae. Varieties of algae: divisions Green algae, Brown algae and Red algae. Distribution in aquatic and terrestrial biocenoses, the ecological role of algae. Practical value.

Schemes of the structure of algae of various departments.

Laboratory and practical work

Study of the external structure of algae *.

Theme

The origin and general characteristics of higher plants. Features of the organization and individual development of higher plants. Spore plants. General characteristics, origin. Department Mossy; features of organization, life cycle. Distribution and role in biocenoses. Department of Spaniform; features of organization, life cycle. Distribution and role in biocenoses. Division Horsetail; features of organization, life cycle. Distribution and role in biocenoses. Department Fern. The origin and characteristics of the organization of ferns. The life cycle of ferns. Distribution and role in biocenoses.

Schemes of the structure and life cycles of mosses, horsetails and moss, various representatives of moss, moss, and horsetails, schemes of the structure of a fern; ancient ferns, fern development cycle diagram, various representatives of ferns.

Laboratory and practical work

Study of the external structure of moss *.

Study of the external structure of a fern *.

Theme

The origin and characteristics of the organization of gymnosperms; body structure, life forms of gymnosperms. Diversity, prevalence of gymnosperms, their role in biocenoses and practical significance.

The patterns of the gymnosperms, the development cycle of the pine, various representatives of the gymnosperms.

Laboratory and practical work

Study of the structure and diversity of gymnosperms *.

Theme

The origin and characteristics of the organization of angiosperms; body structure, life forms of angiosperms. Classes Monocots and Dicots. The main families of angiosperms are (2 families of monocotyledons and 3 families of dicotyledons). Diversity, prevalence of flowering, their role in biocenoses, in human life and its economic activities.

The structure of the flowering plant; flower structures, development cycle of flowering plants (double fertilization), representatives of different angiosperm families.

Laboratory and practical work

Study of the structure of angiosperms *.

Recognition of the most common plants of their area, the definition of their systematic position *.

Section 4. Kingdom of the Animals (37 h)

Theme

Animal organism as a complete system. Cells, tissues, organs and systems of animal organs. Animal regulation; nervous and endocrine regulation. Features of animal life, distinguishing them from representatives of other kingdoms of nature. Animal systematics; taxonomic categories; unicellular and multicellular (invertebrates and chordates) animals. Animal Relations in Biocenoses; trophic levels and food chains.

Distribution of animals and plants on the planet: biogeographical areas.

Laboratory and practical work

Analysis of the structure of various biomes of land and the world ocean in diagrams and illustrations.

Theme

General characteristics of the simplest. The cage of unicellular animals as a whole organism; features of the organization of the simplest cells, special organoids. A variety of protozoa and their role in biocenoses, human life and its economic activities. Type Sarozhgutikonostsy; variety of forms of sarcodic and flagellated. Type Sporoviki; sporotoviki – parasites of humans and animals. Features of the organization of representatives. Type of ciliates. The variety of ciliates and their role in biocenoses.

Diagrams of the structure of amoeba, euglena green and ciliate infusoria, representatives of various single-cell groups.

Laboratory and practical work

The structure of the amoeba, euglena green and ciliate shoe.

Theme

General characteristics of multicellular animals; symmetry types. Animal cells and tissues. The simplest multicellular sponges; their distribution and environmental significance.

Types of symmetry in multicellular animals, a variety of sponges.

Theme

Features of the organization of the intestinal cavity. Asexual and sexual reproduction. The variety and distribution of intestinal cavities; hydroid, scyphoid and coral polyps. Role in natural communities.

Diagram of the structure of the hydra, jellyfish and colonies of coral polyps. Coral reef biocenosis. External and internal structure of the intestinal cavity.

Laboratory and practical work

The study of posters and tables reflecting the progress of regeneration of the hydra.

Theme

Features of the organization of flatworms. Free-living ciliary worms. The variety of ciliary worms and their role in biocenoses. Adaptations to parasitism in flatworms; classes Flukes and Tapeworms. Concept of life cycle; developmental cycles of the hepat and bovine tench. The variety of flatworm-parasites; preventive measures for parasitic diseases.

Plans for the structure of flatworms leading a free and parasitic lifestyle. Various representatives of ciliary worms. Schemes of the life cycles of the hepatic and bovine chain.

Laboratory and practical work

Life cycle of hepatitis and bovine tapeworm.

Theme

Features of the organization of roundworms (for example, human roundworm). Free-living and parasitic roundworms. The development cycle of human roundworm; preventive measures for ascariasis.

Scheme of the structure and development cycle of human roundworm. Various free-living and parasitic forms of roundworms.

Laboratory and practical work

The life cycle of human roundworm.

Theme

Features of the organization of annelids (on the example of the polychaete nereid worm); secondary body cavity. Variety of annelids; polychaetae and malicinate annelids, leeches. The value of annelids in biocenoses.

Diagram of the structure of polychaetae and substetal ringed worms. Various representatives of the type are Ringworms.

Laboratory and practical work

The external structure of the earthworm.

Theme

Features of the organization of mollusks; mixed body cavity. The variety of mollusks; classes Gastropods, Bivalves and Cephalopods. The value of mollusks in biocenoses. The role in the life of man and his economic activities.

Diagram of the structure of gastropods, bivalves and cephalopods. Various representatives of the type of mollusks.

Laboratory and practical work

External structure of mollusks.

Theme

The origin and characteristics of the organization of arthropods. Arthropod diversity; Crustaceans, Arachnids, Insects and Centipedes. Class Crustaceans. General characteristics of the class of crustaceans on the example of crayfish. Higher and lower crayfish. The diversity and importance of crustaceans in biocenoses. Spider-like class. General characteristics of arachnids. Spiders, scorpions, ticks. The diversity and importance of arachnids in biocenoses. Class Insects. Insect diversity. General characteristics of the class of insects; groups of insects with complete and incomplete transformation. The diversity and importance of insects in biocenoses. Centipedes.

The scheme of the structure of crayfish. Various representatives of the lower and higher crustaceans. The structure of the spider spider. Various representatives of the class Arachnida. Schemes of the structure of insects of various orders.

Laboratory and practical work

Study of the external structure and diversity of arthropods *.

Theme

General characteristics of the type. Variety of echinoderms; Classes Starfish, Sea urchins, Holothurians. Diversity and environmental value.

The structure of the starfish, sea urchin and sea cucumbers. Bottom biocenosis scheme.

Theme

The origin of the chord; cortical and vertebrate subtypes. General characteristics of the type. Uncranial subtype: lancelet; features of its organization and distribution.

The scheme of the structure of the lancelet. Scheme of metamorphosis in ascidians.

Theme

General characteristics of vertebrates. The origin of the fish. General characteristics of fish. Classes Cartilaginous (sharks and rays) and Bony fish. Variety of bony fish: cartilaginous, cross-finned, lungfish and ray-finned fish. The diversity of species and characteristics of adaptation to the habitat. Ecological and economic value of fish.

Variety of fish. The structure of the brush-fin and ray-finned fish.

Laboratory and practical work

Features of the external structure of fish in connection with the way of life *.

Theme

The first amphibians. General characteristics of amphibians as the first terrestrial vertebrates. Tailless, tail and legless amphibians; diversity, habitat and environmental features. Structural and functional organization of amphibians on the example of a frog. The ecological role and diversity of amphibians.

Amphibian diversity. Structures of cross-finned fish and amphibians.

Laboratory and practical work

Features of the external structure of the frog associated with its way of life *.

Theme

The origin of reptiles. General characteristics of reptiles as primary animals. Structural and functional organization of reptiles on the example of a lizard. Scaly (snakes, lizards and chameleons), crocodiles and turtles. The distribution and diversity of reptile forms; position in ecological systems. Extinct groups of reptiles.

The variety of reptiles. Schemes of the structure of amphibians and reptiles.

Laboratory and practical work

Comparative analysis of the structure of the skeletons of turtles, lizards and snakes.

Theme

The origin of the birds; the first birds and their ancestors; real birds. Ciligent, or flying; ratites or running; penguins, or swimming birds. Features of the organization and ecological differentiation of flying birds (birds of the forest, steppes and deserts, open air spaces, swamps, ponds and coasts). Protection and attraction of birds; domestic birds. The role of birds in nature, human life and its economic activities.

Variety of birds. Schemes of the structure of reptiles and birds.

Laboratory and practical work

Features of the external structure of birds associated with their way of life *.

Theme

The origin of mammals. Pervozveri (duckbill and echidna). Lower animals (marsupials). Real animals (placental). Structural and functional features of the organization of mammals on the example of a dog. The ecological role of mammals in the development of wildlife in the Cenozoic era. The main units of placental mammals are: Insectivorous, Chiroptera, Rodents, Lepidiformes, Predatory, Pinnipeds, Cetaceans, Petimatous, Unmarried, Primates, and others. Significance of mammals in nature and human activities. Protection of valuable animals. Domestic mammals (cattle and small cattle and other farm animals).

Schemes reflecting the ecological differentiation of mammals. The diversity of mammals. Schemes of the structure of reptiles and mammals.

Laboratory and practical work

Study of the structure of mammals *.

Recognition of animals in their area, the definition of their systematic position and value in human life *.

Section 5. Viruses (2 h)

Theme

General characteristics of viruses. The story of their discovery. The structure of the virus on the example of tobacco mosaic virus. The interaction of the virus and cells. Viruses are the causative agents of dangerous human diseases. Prevention of influenza disease. Origin of viruses.

Models of various viral particles. Diagrams of the interaction of the virus and the cells in the horizontal and vertical type of transmission of infection. Schemes reflecting the development of viral diseases.

Features of the organization and diversity of living organisms. The main areas of application of biological knowledge in the practice of agriculture, in several industries, with the protection of the environment and human health.

Standby time – 4 hours

"Biology. Person. Grade 8 "(72 h, 2 h per week)

Section 1. The place of man in the organic world (2 h)

Man as part of wildlife. The place of man in the system of the organic world. Traits similarity of humans and animals. The similarities and differences of man and apes. A reasonable man.

Skeletons of humans and vertebrates. Tables, diagrams, drawings, revealing the similarities between humans and animals.

Section 2. The origin of man (2 h)

Biological and social factors of anthroposociogenesis. Stages of anthropogenesis and the factors of human development. Human race, their origin and unity.

Model "The origin of man." Models of the remnants of the material primitive culture of man. The image of representatives of different races of man.

Section 3. A brief history of the development of knowledge about the structure and functions of the human body (7 hours)

Human sciences: anatomy, physiology, hygiene. Great anatomists and physiologists: Hippocrates, Claudius Galen, Andreas Vesalius.

Portraits of great scientists – anatomists and physiologists.

Section 4. General overview of the structure and functions of the human body (4 h)

The cellular structure of the body. Fabrics: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous. Organs of the human body. Organ systems. The relationship of organs and organ systems as the basis of homeostasis.

Schemes of the structure of human organs.

Laboratory and practical work

The study of the microscopic structure of tissues.

Recognition on the tables of organs and organ systems.

Section 5. Coordination and Regulation (10 hours)

Humoral regulation. Endocrine glands. Hormones and their role in metabolic processes. Neurohumoral regulation.

Schemes of the structure of the endocrine glands. Tables illustrating the structure, biological activity and points of application of hormones. Photos of patients with various dysfunctions of the endocrine glands.

Nervous regulation. The value of the nervous system. Central and peripheral nervous systems. Vegetative and somatic parts of the nervous system. Reflex; conducting a nerve impulse. The structure and function of the spinal cord, brain. Cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Bark of the big hemispheres. The value of the cerebral cortex and its connection with other parts of the brain. Sense organs (analyzers), their structure and functions. The structure, function and hygiene of the organs of vision. The structure and function of the organs of hearing. Prevention of hearing impairment. The organs of touch, taste, smell. Hygiene of the senses.

Models of the brain, the senses. Schemes of reflex arcs of unconditioned reflexes.

Laboratory and practical work

The study of the human brain (in models).

Learning to change the size of the pupil.

Section 6. Support and movement (8 h)

Human skeleton, its departments: axial skeleton, skeleton of limb girdles. Features of the human skeleton associated with work and upright walking. The composition and structure of the bones: tubular spongy bones. Bone growth. Age-related changes in the structure of bones. Types of bone connections. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and their prevention. Muscular system. The structure and development of muscles. The main muscle groups, their functions. Muscle work; static and dynamic loads. The role of the nervous system in the regulation of muscle function. Muscle fatigue, the role of active rest in restoring muscle tissue activity. The value of physical culture and labor regime for the correct formation of the musculoskeletal system.

The human skeleton, the individual bones. Cutting bones. Methods of first aid for injuries (injuries) of the musculoskeletal system.

Laboratory and practical work

The study of the external structure of the bones.

Measuring the mass and growth of your body.

Identify the effect of statistical and dynamic work on muscle fatigue.

Section 7. The internal environment of the body (3 h)

The concept of "internal environment". Tissue fluid. Blood, its composition and value in the maintenance of the body. Cellular elements of the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets. Blood plasma Blood coagulation Blood groups. Lymph. Immunity. Infectious diseases. Warning vaccinations. Blood transfusion. Donation The value of the works of L. Pasteur and I. I. Mechnikov in the field of immunity.

Schemes and tables devoted to the composition of the blood, blood groups.

Laboratory and practical work

The study of the microscopic structure of the blood.

Section 8. Transport of substances (4 h)

The heart, its structure and regulation of activity. Large and small circles of blood circulation. Lymph circulation. The movement of blood through the vessels. Blood pressure. Diseases of the circulatory system, their prevention.

Model of the human heart. Tables and diagrams illustrating the structure of blood cells and circulatory organs.

Laboratory and practical work

Blood pressure measurement.

Determining the pulse and counting the number of heartbeats.

Section 9. Breath (5 h)

The need of the human body for air oxygen. Respiratory organs, their structure. Respiratory movement. Gas exchange in the lungs, tissues. Gas transfer by erythrocytes and blood plasma. Regulation of breathing. Artificial respiration. Voice Unit.

Models of the larynx, lungs. Schemes illustrating the mechanism of inhalation and exhalation, artificial respiration techniques.

Laboratory and practical work

Determination of respiratory rate.

Section 10. Digestion (5 hours)

Nutrients and food. Human need for food and nutrients. Vitamins. Digestion. The structure and function of the digestive organs. Digestive glands: liver and pancreas. Stages of the digestive process. Research I. Pavlov in the field of digestion.

Man’s torso model. Dummy internal organs.

Laboratory and practical work

The effect of gastric juice on proteins, saliva – on starch.

Definition of norms of rational nutrition.

Section 11. Metabolism and energy (2 h)

General characteristics of metabolism and energy. Plastic and energy metabolism, their relationship.

Vitamins, their role in metabolism. Hypovitaminosis. Hypervitaminosis.

The final metabolic products. Selection organs. Kidneys, their structure and function. Urine formation. The role of the skin in excretion of metabolic products.

Section 13. Body Covers (3 h)

The structure and function of the skin. The role of the skin in thermoregulation. Hardening Hygienic requirements for clothing, shoes. Skin diseases and their prevention.

Schemes illustrating the structure of human skin, derived skin.

Section 14. Reproduction and development (3 h)

The system of reproductive organs: structure and hygiene. Fertilization. Intrauterine development, childbirth. Lactation. Growth and development of the child. Family planning.

Section 15. Higher Nervous Activity (5 h)

Reflex – the basis of nervous activity. Research I. M. Sechenov, I. P. Pavlov, A. A. Ukhtomsky, P. K. Anokhin. Types of reflexes. Forms of behavior. Features of higher nervous activity and human behavior. Cognitive processes. Braking. Types of nervous system. Speech Thinking. Consciousness. Biological rhythms. Sleep, its importance and hygiene. Hygiene of mental labor. Memory. Emotions. Features of the human psyche.

Section 16. Man and his health (4 hours)

Compliance with sanitary and hygienic norms and rules of a healthy lifestyle. Providing first aid for bleeding, carbon monoxide poisoning, saving a drowning man, injuries, burns, frostbite. Health promotion: physical activity, hardening. Risk factors: stress, hypodynamia, overwork. Harmful habits, their effect on human health. Man and the environment. Environment as a source of substances and energy. Habitat. Rules of human behavior in the environment.

Laboratory and practical work

The study of methods of stopping arterial and venous bleeding.

Analysis and assessment of the impact of environmental factors on human health.

The backup time is 9 hours.

"Biology. General patterns. Grade 9 (68 hours, 2 hours per week)

The place of the course in the system of natural sciences, as well as in biological sciences. Goals and objectives of the course. The value of the subject to understand the unity of all life and interdependence of all parts of the Earth’s biosphere.

Section 1. The evolution of the living world on Earth (21 h)

Theme

Levels of life organization: molecular genetic, cellular, tissue, organ, organism, population-specific, biogeocenotic and biospheric. The unity of the chemical composition of living matter; the main groups of chemical elements and molecules that form the living substance of the biosphere. The cellular structure of the organisms that inhabit the Earth. Metabolism and self-regulation in biological systems. Self-reproduction; heredity and variability as the basis for the existence of living matter. Growth and development. Irritability; forms of selective reaction of organisms to external influences. Rhythm of life processes; biological rhythms and their meaning. Discreteness of living matter and the relationship of the part and the whole in biosystems. Energy dependence of living organisms; forms of energy consumption. Kingdom of nature; brief description of the natural classification system of living organisms. Species diversity.

Schemes reflecting the structures of the kingdoms of living nature.

Theme

The development of biology in the pre-Darwinian period. The dominance in science of the ideas of the “initial expediency” and the immutability of living nature. The works of C. Linnaeus on the systematics of plants and animals. Evolutionary theory of J. B. Lamarck.

Biographies of scientists who contributed to the development of evolutionary ideas. The life and work of J. B. Lamarck.

Theme

Background of the origin of the teachings of C. Darwin: advances in the natural sciences, expeditionary material of C. Darwin. Teaching Charles Darwin on artificial selection. Teaching Charles Darwin on natural selection. View – elementary evolutionary unit. Universal individual variability and excess offspring. The struggle for existence and natural selection.

Biography of Charles Darwin. Route and specific findings of Charles Darwin during a trip on the ship "Beagle".

Theme

Adaptive features of the structure. Patronizing coloring of the integuments: hiding coloring (monophonic, two-tone, dissecting, etc.); cautionary coloring. Mimicry. Adaptive behavior of animals. Care of offspring. Physiological adaptations. Relativity of fitness.

Illustrations showing the structure of the body of animals and plant organisms, ensuring survival in typical conditions of existence. Examples of various types of protective coloration in animals.

Laboratory and practical work

Discussion on the role models of adaptive behavior of animals.

Theme

Kind as a genetically isolated system; reproductive isolation and its mechanisms. Population structure of the species; ecological and genetic characteristics of populations. The population is an elementary evolutionary unit. Ways and speed speciation; geographical and ecological speciation.

Schemes illustrating the process of geographical speciation. Live plants and animals, herbariums and collections showing the individual variability and diversity of varieties of cultivated plants and breeds of domestic animals, as well as the results of adaptation of organisms to the habitat and the results of speciation.

Laboratory and practical work

The study of the adaptability of organisms to the environment *.

Study of variability, criteria of type, results of artificial selection on varieties of cultivated plants *.

Theme

The main directions of the evolutionary process. Biological progress and biological regression (A. N. Severtsov). Ways to achieve biological progress. The main laws of evolution: divergence, convergence, concurrency. The rules of evolution of groups of organisms. Results of evolution: the diversity of species, organic expediency, the gradual complication of the organization.

Examples of homologous and similar organs, their structure and origin in ontogenesis. Ratio of paths of progressive biological evolution. Materials characterizing representatives of animals and plants listed in the Red Book and under state protection.

Theme

Organic world as a result of evolution. The emergence and development of life on Earth. Chemical, prebiological (theory of academician

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