Everyone knows about the existence of state secrets. Admission to it is strictly limited, confidentiality is maintained at the highest level. There are, however, a number of positions and jobs, which involve working with documents of heightened secrecy. This imposes its obligations on the person, but it also receives a nice bonus – a security premium. More on this in the following.
What is a state secret?
To begin, perhaps, it is worthwhile with the fact that in general lies behind the concept of state secrets. In accordance with the legislation of our country, this is the name given to certain information from certain areas (foreign policy, economics, military, intelligence and counterintelligence, operational search measures), the disclosure of which may entail serious damage to the country. That is why there is also such a thing as protecting state secrets. This process takes place in several stages. First, based on the law on state secrets, a special commission makes up a whole list of data that should not be subject to publicity for a wide audience. First, the state imposes restrictions on this data. Then, separately in each state authority to which this or that sensitive information relates, special degrees of secrecy are imposed on them (a note about how important the document is; there are only three of them, we will return to them a little later) and carry out measures to limit the spread information. According to some information, now in the list of classified data more than a hundred points.
That will never be a state secret
Not all information from the above mentioned areas can be classified. The law on the state secret is specifically spelled out the data that will never and should not be subject to confidentiality. Among them are information about all kinds of disasters, natural disasters, emergencies of various kinds (and even information about their predictions!), Because they pose a threat not only to health, but also to the life of the population, and people must be warned in advance about impending cataclysms in order to have opportunity to take care of yourself and your loved ones in advance.
Also to the information that can never be kept secret, are information relating to the ecology of the state and sanitation. Confidential documents will never be data on the state of health care, education and agriculture – that is, areas that play an important, one might even say, vital role in the fate of the population. You can not hide from the people and information about the situation with crime in the country, because ignorance of these data indirectly, but can affect the life and health of citizens. In the event that human rights and freedoms were violated, this also cannot but become public knowledge, as well as in a situation when the crime of law occurred by representatives of bodies vested with the highest state power. By the way, about the authorities: the population of the country must be informed about the state of health of the top leadership without fail, this information should also not be hidden in any way. In addition, the list of this information includes data on the size of cash reserves and gold reserves, as well as information on all possible privileges and compensations provided by the state – no matter to whom, whether it is an individual citizen or an entire organization. That’s all the information that can never be withheld, hiding behind the words about the protection of state secrets, since they are not this very secret.
To talk about degrees
It’s time to re-recall the notorious degrees of secrecy, which are set separately for each new document. Which degree to choose depends directly on how important this information is and, accordingly, how large the scale of the tragedy will be if it leaks to the masses. Each degree has its own special security classification: secret, top secret and of particular importance. You can trace the gradation of the names of the vultures. But how to determine which of the three categories above one or another confidential document belongs to? And who should determine this? In fact, everything has long been defined – by a government decree adopted more than twenty years ago. It clearly spelled out what information to include. So, for example, information under the special importance will be applied to all materials from all the above areas (economics, foreign policy and others like them) if their leakage causes damage in these areas to the whole country. This is the most important (if I may say so) secrecy mode.
The griffin is placed top secretly on those documents, the disclosure of information about the contents of which will damage the interests of our country’s ministries in one or more industries. And finally, any other information, the disclosure of which will cause considerable harm to the interests of an enterprise or organization in a particular area, is simply secret. Working with secret documents also presupposes their obligatory marking, which is applied to each document after it became clear to which category of secrecy it belongs. Among other information indicated on the document, it is also marked on the date of possible declassification – or on the conditions necessary for this to occur. In any case, the maximum secret information can be no more than thirty years. However, sometimes it happens that the term is extended, and sometimes, conversely, shorten. So, five years ago, data on oil reserves in the depths of our country ceased to be a state secret.
Who is allowed to a state secret
The regime of secrecy imposed on information constituting state secrets in our country also implies a rather limited circle of persons admitted to this information. So, people who occupy the following positions always have access to it: the chairman of the government, the prosecutor general, the federal minister, the chairman of the central electoral commission, the chairman of the Chamber of Accounts, the head of the presidential administration, the ombudsman for human rights, and so on — altogether twenty different positions, twenty people. However, there are situations when this circle can be expanded (for example, when a person needs to get this or that information under lock and key, including if he works on secret objects). In exchange for this, however, the person will acquire some more restrictions (about them just below). Then you can talk about the form of access to state secrets.
How to access
Like the categories, the above forms are also three. Those who need documents from the category of special importance, receive the first form; in need of top secret materials – the second; Well, those who need secret documents, acquire a third. Without a form of access to state secrets it is impossible to access it.
What is the above form? In short, this is written consent to certain restrictions on one’s rights in various spheres of life (we’ll clarify this question later), as well as on the inspection by the authorities; acquaintance with legislation; definition of social guarantees; permission of the head and so on. The inspection of the authorities will affect not only the applicant for state secrets, but also all his immediate relatives (and the law includes the mother, father, husband / wife, children, brothers, sisters (including those who are not full-fledged), adopted children or adoptive parents ). By the way, those who gain access by the third form are exempted from all checks, except when deemed necessary.
Can I get a waiver
No need to think that any applicant for the possession of valuable information for Russia at the first request will receive permission to do so. After thorough checks, after a long red tape, a person may be denied the right of access. The reasons for which this is possible are the following: first, it is the presence of a conviction for serious crimes. On what particular issue was judged – in this case it does not matter, but the fact that there is a conviction is important, and how. Secondly, they may refuse to admit to secret materials if a person claims to gain access on the first or second form (where checks are required), but evades verification activities. In addition, the reason for the refusal is the residence abroad of close relatives or the applicant himself (or the issuance of documents for exit by some of them), recognition of his incapacitated and / or the presence of contraindications to such activities for health reasons.
There are few such contraindications, but nevertheless you should not discount them. These include diseases of the nervous system (in particular, susceptibility to epileptic seizures), as well as such illnesses as schizophrenia, affective disorders, mental retardation, abnormal behavior, and so on. In order to prove that this kind of disease is not present, an applicant for possession of valuable state information must undergo a medical examination, including a mandatory visit to such doctors as a psychiatrist, narcologist and neurologist. They will write their conclusion in a certificate, which will be valid for exactly one year – so, if in a year a person renews a contract for working with confidential state information, he will have to undergo an examination again.
Perhaps the most common restriction that happy owners of information constituting a state secret are exposed to is the prohibition to leave the territory of our country. Of course, it is not imposed for life, but at the time of admission to state secrets a person becomes restricted to leave. Other bonuses that can be obtained in exchange for possession of information are restrictions on privacy, information dissemination, and the use of discoveries and inventions.
What else should know about state secrets
If you are admitted to state secrets, you take upon yourself a huge responsibility – you pledge to the state to keep in secret all that it, the state, that is, has entrusted to you. And if you cope with this ambitious task, you are well done. And if suddenly not? And – deliberately not? If it so happened that the information subject to the strictest secret suddenly leaked out, became public, not only that: the foreign public – what then? Then first of all they will look for the guilty. And when they find it, there will be another definition, called treason.
This term refers to the issuance of information that is a state secret of Russia to other states. The guilty will inevitably be judged according to Russian laws, and the punishment for such a crime is quite strict – according to the relevant article of the Criminal Code, which, having been punished, will not only demand damages in material terms, but will be put to prison – and not for a short time. The period of imprisonment provides for a period from twelve to twenty years, depending on the degree of seriousness of the damage inflicted on the state by the disclosure of its secrets. As for the fine, its size varies: it is either five hundred thousand rubles, or the wages of the perpetrator for a three-year period. It seems that there are few arrests under this article, but this is by no means the case. Statistics states that in the period from 2009 to 2013. – that is, in just a four-year period – twenty-five people were convicted of high treason in our country. However, the law provides another scenario: if you voluntarily and in time notify the authorities and thereby help prevent further damage, the arrest of the person will not be affected.
It is also necessary to understand the difference between the two definitions – high treason and disclosure of state secrets. The first is always done consciously: a person understands what he is going for, realizes that by his actions he will harm his own country, presents possible consequences. The one who divulges state secrets, does it unintentionally, not understanding what his talkativeness can lead to. As a rule, the latter applies to people who want to present themselves better than others, boast, make an impression and stuff like that.
As treason qualifies, by the way, not only the transfer of confidential information to foreign representatives, but also the provision of advice to them. So, there was a case when a scientist from Nizhny Novgorod, who read a report on the development of explosives on a business trip abroad, was accused of treason. A few years ago, another arms control scientist was convicted for a fifteen-year term.
Surcharge for secrecy
As mentioned above, working with confidential information, in addition to the obvious difficulties and inconveniences, brings an undoubted plus – extra money (there is hardly anyone who will not be happy about this). The order of this income is fixed in the special rules governing payments to professionals working with confidential information. At the same time, even the amount of payments itself varies depending on the category of secrecy with which a person interacts, they receive it all monthly. The amount of this monthly allowance for secrecy is determined by the percentage of the basic salary. For the category of special importance, the additional payment ranges from fifty to seventy-five percent of the salary, for perfect secretaries, from thirty to fifty, and finally, comrades who have access to simply secret information can claim an additional ten to fifteen or five to ten percent (depending on whether the test was carried out or not).
This is not the only factor affecting the size of state security premiums. So, when determining the final amount that a person will additionally receive, two more points will be taken into account: firstly, what is the amount of information available to this employee, and secondly, how and how long will the classified materials remain relevant.
A separate category of citizens – employees of specialized units who are engaged in the protection of state secrets – also receive allowances, moreover, they are also charged an additional amount for work experience in such organizations. It also grows depending on the number of years of service. For the period from one to five years, ten percent from the salary is paid in addition, from five to ten – fifteen. The maximum is twenty percent, and you can get them if you have been working in this field for more than ten years.
All payments, by the way, are made from the approved wage fund. However, all of the above is only a general procedure for the payment of allowances for a state secret; One of the articles of the law on state secrets says that the federal authorities themselves can set the amount of monthly allowances at enterprises and organizations belonging to their department. For example, civilian personnel receive payments according to a decree of the Minister of Defense. For the sixteenth year, the size of the security charges for civilian personnel, which is indicated in the resolution, is the amount that directly depends on the degree of importance of the material. It ranges from ten percent for the smallest information to twenty-five – for particular importance. Do not differ a huge percentage now and employees of the municipality. The surcharge for the secrecy of municipal employees is absolutely the same as the above.
An interesting situation has developed in the Ministry of the Interior. Ordinary, ordinary employees, on duty, facing documents that constitute state secrets, receive an additional ten, twenty or twenty-five percent – depending on the category of secrecy, of course. As for the bosses, the leadership in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the surcharge for their secrecy is higher – for example, the heads of departments and headquarters, interacting with materials of special importance, additionally have sixty percent of their military salary.
Who do not pay
There are separate moments stipulated and spelled out in special decrees / orders / decrees when a person is not paid additional money, despite having received access to state secrets. One of these moments is, for example, parental leave. If an employee (at least mom, even dad) goes on maternity leave, the payment of surcharges automatically stops.
In addition, employees who no longer work with confidential documents do not receive a surcharge for one of the following reasons: they either no longer occupy their former position, or they have no permanent access to information that is a state secret, for example, they are order from this type of activity). In addition, they do not receive additional money and employees who went on leave without pay, even if these employees had received such a benefit up to this point. Immediately you need to specify: when you go on a regular vacation, as well as when you are on sick leave or on a business trip, the receipt of additional funds for the employee is saved and paid. At this time, the person receives an average wage, therefore, according to it, and the percentage is calculated for the calculation of additional allowances.
If a person has lost permanent access to confidential documents, no longer takes his place or went on leave without pay, the additional payment to him is suspended from the day following that date. By the way, it should be clarified what permanent access means. This refers to working with secret information obtained in any form (electronic, printed, on the carrier – it does not matter) for a year in a row. As a rule, it is for such a time that contracts are concluded, which later either are extended or not. It is worth remembering that working with confidential documents and, accordingly, access to state secrets is a voluntary matter. Oblige work with such materials cannot be. Consequently, a person can solve this issue himself and refuse such a proposal. But, of course, there will be no extra charges either.
Extra charges for secrecy, thus, are a good thing, but you should think three times whether the game is worth the candle.