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Table 3 – Large transport planes and layouts (program Energy – Buran)

Table 2 – Layouts (Space Shuttle program)

After working out the materials for the first flight of the Buran and the subsequent actual closure of the program of the Reusable Transport and Space System in 1993, the mock-up was leased to the Cosmos-Earth company to organize an attraction in Moscow at TsPKiO them.

A full-scale model of individual compartments of the Buran spacecraft. The individual components of the ship (the nose of the fuselage with the cockpit module, the tail of the fuselage, the left wing with a fragment of the middle part of the fuselage, etc.) were intended for heat-vibration-acoustic tests. Product

Created in 1993 for demonstration in the Kennedy Space Center complex under the name “Explorer”.

Part 3. Launcher (PH)

Table 5 – RN from the composition of the space program “Energy – Buran”

Table 6 – PH from the Space Shuttle space system

As accelerators of the first stage, an 11K77 product is used (launch vehicle "Zenith"), developed by the Design Bureau "South" named after academician

Number of steps – 2 Number of accelerators – 4 Length – 59 m Diameter – 16 m Starting weight – 2400 t Payload mass – 100 t

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Accelerators (first stage) Traction 7.55-7.89 MN Main engine RD-170 Operating time 140 sec Fuel (fuel – kerosene, oxidizer – oxygen)

Central unit (second stage) Thrust 5.8-7.5 MN Main engine 4 * RD-0120 Operating time 480 s Fuel (fuel – hydrogen, oxidizer – oxygen)

The first launch on May 15, 1987 with an experimental load: the Polus satellite weighing 77 tons (the Skif-DM mass-dimensional model, a prototype of an orbital laser platform), was not put into orbit due to a failure of the spacecraft orientation system. The second launch on November 15, 1988 under the Energy-Buran program, a spacecraft weighing 100 tons was successfully launched into orbit.

Number of steps – 2 Number of accelerators – 2 Length – 56.14 m Diameter – 8.69 m Starting weight – 2030 t Payload mass – 29.5 t

First stage – Accelerators 12-13,8 MN Marching engine SRS (Solid Rocket Booster) Operating time 123 sec Fuel: a mixture of ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer), aluminum (fuel), iron oxide (catalyst), polymer (PBAN or polybutadiene, which serves binder, stabilizer and additional fuel) and epoxy hardener)

Second stage External fuel tank Operating time 480 s Fuel (fuel – hydrogen, oxidizer – oxygen) Orbital rocket flight Total thrust 5.3 MN RS-25 cruise engine (SSME) Operating time 1250 s Fuel (fuel – methyl hydrazine, oxidizer – diazota tetraoxide)

The first launch was April 12, 1981 with a 100-ton Columbia spacecraft, in which two astronauts made the first orbital flight with a duration of 54.5 hours. The Space Shuttle was used to transfer payloads to orbits 200-500 km in height, conduct scientific research, and maintain orbital spacecraft (installation and repair work). Space Shuttle “Discovery” in April 1990, the telescope “Hubble” (flight STS-31) was delivered into orbit. On the Space Shuttle shuttles, four telescope service expeditions were carried out. The Space Shuttle played an important role in the delivery of modules and cargo when creating the International Space Station. Space Shuttle launched into space 1600 tons of payloads. 355 astronauts and cosmonauts made flights (the total number of people raised into orbit — 852 crew members — since many astronauts made several flights each).

By the time of the closure of the program of the Reusable space transportation system in 1993, at least five RN Energia were in various stages of readiness. Until 2002, two of them were kept at the Baikonur cosmodrome and were the property of Kazakhstan; were destroyed on May 12, 2002 when the roof of the assembly and test building collapsed on site 112. Three launch vehicles were at various stages of construction at the stocks of Energia (now RSC Energia), but after the works were closed, the groundwork was destroyed; rockets are either cut or thrown into the backyard of the enterprise, where they continue to remain until now.

Despite the cessation of operation, the technologies developed for Energia continue to be used: the engine of the Energy side blocks RD-170 (the most powerful liquid engine in the history of astronautics) is used under the designation RD-171 in the first stage of the Zenit launch vehicle (the Sea Launch project), and the two-chamber RD-180 engine (designed on the basis of the RD-171) – in the American Atlas-5 rocket. The smallest version – single-chamber RD-191 – is used in the new promising Russian Angara rocket.

The Energia-M LV (product 217GK Neutron) was the smallest rocket in the family, with a payload reduced to 30-35 tons. The number of side blocks was reduced from 4 to 2, instead of 4 RD-0120 engines, only one was installed on the central unit. In 1989-1991. The launch vehicle underwent complex tests, the launch was planned in 1994. However, in 1993, Energia-M lost the tender for the creation of a new heavy RN; According to the results of the competition, the Angara rocket system was preferred by the GKNPTs to them. Khrunichev. Full-size, with all the components of the layout of the rocket is stored at Baikonur. This product was photographed in 2015 by Ralph Mirebs.

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On August 20, 2012, RSC Energia announced its desire to participate in a tender for the development of a heavy-duty RN. However, RSC Energia did not file an application for participation in the tender, the GKNPTK won it. Khrunichev.

On the basis of the first stage accelerators, a family of middle-class rockets Zenit was created (the main developer is the Ukrainian Yuzhnoye Design Bureau named after Academician Yangel). In Russia, based on the deep modernization of the Zenit-2 launch vehicle, the Phoenix program of the RSC Energia has been developing a new Soyuz-5 launch vehicle from 2016.

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The STS program was completed in 2011. About 42 reusable RS-25 engines (SSME developed by Pratt&Whitney, made for three rocket planes, are left in storage for future launch vehicles.

For the Space Shuttle program, by 2003, five-segment solid-fuel boosters were developed (to replace the four-segment ones used), but after the crash of the Columbia spacecraft, this development for the Space Shuttle was suspended. The five-segment solid fuel boosters were planned to be used first for the Ares program, and after it was closed for the Space Launch System.

Part 4. Aircraft for transportation

Table 7 – Cargo planes of the space program “Energy – Buran”

Table 8 – Space Shuttle cargo aircraft

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