Most users of personal computers do not face the need to use any CMD command. Many simply have enough features provided by the visual shell of the operating system. Nevertheless, there are situations when you have to manipulate the system directly, and that’s when the command line comes to the rescue.
What is the command line
This software is part of the standard programs of the system. CMD provides the user with the ability to work with the system and files directly. The application has a text interface, and the execution result is displayed on the screen. Simply put, the command line translates user requests into a user-friendly form. Outwardly, of course, the program does not look very familiar to a simple user, but at the same time it has a number of positive properties, and besides, it is faster than the visual component. A command line is built into every version of the Windows operating system.
Ways to start the command line
The operating system developers have provided several options for running CMD:
- Go to the Start menu / standard programs / select from the list below "Command line".
- Go to the Start menu, select "Run", in the window that appears, enter
Most of the most important commands are available through the Help command. After entering this query, Windows CMD commands will appear with information about their uses. All of them can be divided into several fairly large groups. Their separation occurs according to the principle of application. For example, CMD commands to start used commands. Below are the most common ones. They are also the most necessary commands line CMD.
Basic commands for working with system directories
This list of commands is useful if you need to access folders located in the system:
- Dir – provides the ability to view folders in a list. Using additional command line criteria, you can sort directories by a number of parameters.
- RD – provides the ability to remove unnecessary directory. With additional parameters, you can specify the deletion criteria: for example, delete several folders at once.
- MD – the team creates a new folder (directory). Various options allow you to create directories of different types.
- CD – provides the ability to move from one directory to another, in some cases you will need to use quotes.
- XCopy – used to copy folders, while their structure does not change. Unlike Copy, this one has more advanced command features. Through the CMD with this request, you can perform quite flexible operations.
- Tree – provides the ability to display directories in graphic form. By default, the display takes place through pseudographics.
- Move – used to move and change the name of the directory. The command allows you to move several folders at once.
Basic commands for working with files
These CMD file commands can be useful to many PC users:
- del – command is used for deletion. It can be used to delete both one and several files. In addition, it is possible to delete files that are allowed for reading only;
- edit – a text editor is launched using the command;
- ren – allows you to rename the file. You can also use rename;
- move – used to move and rename a file;
- copy con – allows you to create a new file;
- fc – allows you to compare what is in two files. The result of the work are the appearing symbols that give information about the comparison status;
- type – applicable for text documents. The execution of the command is to display the contents of the file;
- copy – allows you to copy and merge files.
Commands for diagnostics of computer and system railway
In addition to all the above advantages, CMD commands allow you to check for errors in the operation of hard disks or change the labels of volumes, as well as defragmentation.
- Compact – the command allows you to display and configure compression in the NTFS file system. With this command, you can save significant disk space.
- Format – format a disk or floppy disk. Note that formatting will completely erase all data on the media.
- Chkdisk – checks and displays information about the media. The team will help to learn about the occupied space, the amount of space on the damaged sectors and so on.
- Fsutil – provides information about the file system and allows you to make changes to it.
- Chkntfs – allows you to show and configure the disk check during the Windows startup process.
- Convert – allows you to convert a volume from one file system to another. Cannot change the type of the active volume or disk.
- Recover is a command to recover data from damaged media. This process occurs by reading one sector after another. Reading occurs only from those sectors from which it can be read. Data located in physically damaged sectors will not be restored. Thus, text documents from damaged diskettes are most often restored.
- Diskpart – allows you to open data on the disk and carry out the desired setting.
- Vol – provides information about the serial number of the hard disk.
- Label – used to view and edit volume labels. Note that for FAT32 file systems, the volume name can contain no more than 11 characters, and NTFS 32 characters.
This type of command will help to obtain information about versions, configurations, as well as installed drivers:
- ver – provides system version information using the cmd command; Windows 7 also supports this query;
- driverquery – allows you to view information about installed drivers; Display can occur as a list, table, or CSV;
- systeminfo – provides information about system configurations. Configurations can be viewed both on the local and remote computers, and the command provides properties about the update packages.
Process and Application Management Commands
Commands to manage and change operating system settings:
- shutdown – the command is used to shut down, restart or put the computer into sleep mode. If you have the necessary user rights, you can make settings remotely;
- time – used to display and change the current time;
- date – used to display and change the current date;
- tasklist – provides the user with a list of processes currently running on a local or remote personal computer;
- schtasks – allows you to create, configure or delete scheduled tasks in the operating system. In the graphical interface, the command is represented by the program. "Task Scheduler";
- taskkill is used to terminate the work of processes by means of identifiers or the names of executable files. To use the tool start with Windows XP.
Commands for setting up the command line
This group of commands relates directly to setting up the CMD. Commands will help clear the screen, change its appearance, and so on:
- Exit – allows you to close the packet data or even close the command line.
- Color – provides the ability to change the background color or font in the command window. The color is given by a hexadecimal digit. The high-order bit indicates the brightness, and the subsequent bits indicate the color. The default is white letters on a black background.
- Title – allows you to change the name of the window
CMD network commands
For most users, the need for these requests is extremely rare, but professionals believe that these codes are very helpful when working with computers:
- getmac – the command provides information about the hardware addresses of network adapters. At the same time, it is possible to find out both local and remote addresses;
It is worth remembering that, in addition to these network commands, there are still some that will help simplify the work of users. It should be remembered that these commands should be used only when there is confidence in the action being performed. Incorrect use of CMD commands can lead to serious problems in the operation of a personal computer.
List of useful commands
In addition to the above commands, there are still a huge number of others:
- break – the command allows turning on the CTRL + C key handling;
- debug – runs a tool for debugging and other changes to software products;
- devcon – the command starts the tool, alternative to the task manager;
- exe2bin – command converts exe applications to binary format;
- hostname – provides the ability to get the computer name;
- logoff – the command terminates the Windows system.
All the CMD commands given will make it easier to work with some software. The main thing is not to try to use the requests for their intended purpose in order to avoid the loss of important information and other undesirable consequences.