The authors of the work:
AKHONINA VERA SERGEEVNA
The text of the scientific article on the topic “Federal District of Columbia”
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Motto: Justitia omnibus (Justice for All) Official song – US anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Date of declaring Washington as the capital of the United States: June 11, 1800 Formation of the District of Columbia: 1871
The District of Columbia is an independent territorial unit that is not part of any state.
In the south-west it borders on the Potomac River with Virginia, and on the other sides with Maryland.
In the territory of the future capital of the United States, according to archaeological excavations, the indigenous population lived 4 thousand years ago. The first Europeans appeared in these places in the XVII century.
The capital of the new state – the United States of America, formed by the 13th first colonies – was located in Philadelphia, but for various reasons was transferred several times to other cities. The southern states were in favor of becoming the capital of one of the southern cities, the northern
* AHONINA Vera Sergeyevna – literary associate of the magazine “USA ♦♦ Canada: economics, politics, culture.” Russian Federation, 121069 Moscow, Khlebny per., 2/3 (aboshda @
The district is named after Columbus.
to one of the north. Then it was decided to build the capital on the spot, which the president himself will choose. J. Washington chose a place in the middle. Originally it was a square of 10 square meters. miles The land was called the territory of Colombia. The new territory included Georgetown (Maryland), Alexandria (Virginia) and some other settlements, mainly Maryland.
The city of Washington (Washington) was founded in 1790 on the banks of the Potomac River. On the perimeter of the future capital put 40 large stones, many of which have survived today (one of these stones in the photo). Construction was carried out according to the general plan. This is the only city in the United States, built according to the general plan. It has been the capital since 1800, when President John Adams moved to the White House of Washington from Philadelphia.
In 1814, during the Anglo-American War, the British occupied and set fire to the city. Many buildings burned down, including the Capitol, the White House and the Treasury.
In 1847, when Alexandria and the lands on the right bank of the Potomac returned to Virginia, the district ceased to be a square, as the border with Virginia began to pass along the river.
In 1871, the US Congress united the cities of Washington, Georgetown and Washington County into a single municipality, which received the official name – DC. And although from a legal point of view, the city of Washington ceased to exist from now on, the name continues to be used to designate the entire county.
The total area of the Federal District of Columbia is 177 square meters. km, land area – 159 square meters. km
At the end of 2014, the population of the Federal District was 658,893 people; 49th place (in 1990 – 606,900). Density: 4,065 people per square meter. km
The racial and ethnic composition in 2012 was as follows: whites — 42.9% (1990 —29.6%); black – 50.1% (1990 – 65.8%); Asians – 3.8%; Indians and Natives of Alaska, including Aleuts and Eskimos, – 0.6% (1990 – 0.2%); Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders – 0.2%. In the 1990 census, Asians, Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders were combined – 1.8%. Hispanic residents (of any race) in 2012 were 9.9% (1990 – 5.4%).
The poverty rating in 2012 was 18.4% (on average in the USA – 15.0%); in 1990 – 21.1% (in the country – 13.5%).
* The capital of the United States is named after the first president of the country, George Washington.
Map and Symbols of the District of Columbia
All US federal authorities are located in Washington: the residence of the President of the United States is located in the White House, Congress sits in the Capitol, and the Supreme Court is located in the building of the Supreme Court.
Prior to the adoption of the Law on Self-Government in 1973, in the District of Columbia there were no local authorities, and the highest authority, according to Art. 1 of the US Constitution, represented the US Congress. The law passed some authority to the mayor and the county council, but Congress reserved the right to repeal local laws,
and also interfere with management. The congress also approves the local budget, which is adopted by the mayor and the county council, and manages the judicial system of Washington.
Since January 2015, the mayor of the District of Columbia has been a member of the Democratic Party, Muriel E. Bowser (Muriel Elizabeth Bowser, born in 1972). In 2007 – 2015 she was a member of the county council.
The Council of the Federal District of Columbia consists of nine Democrats, two independent and two seats are free.
In the federal Senate, the district has no representatives. Since 1991, Eleanor H. Norton (Eleanor Holmes Norton, born in 1937) has been in the US House of Representatives as a non-voting member since 1991. The amendment to the US Constitution, granting district residents the right to elect two senators and at least one full member of the House of Representatives of the US Congress, which was proposed in 1978, was not ratified.
In the 2012 US presidential election, residents of the district voted for Democrat B. Obama (267,070 votes); 21,381 voters cast ballots for Republican candidate M. Romney.
In 1981, the 23rd amendment to the US Constitution was adopted, according to which “in the presidential election Washington should be represented in the Electoral College by the same number of electors as the least populated state”; so the District of Columbia received three votes.
District GDP in 2012 was $ 109.8 billion, and per capita income in the same year was $ 74,710.
The economy of Washington is determined primarily by employment in the field of public administration, as well as the provision of services.
In second place is tourism. For example, in 2012, the local treasury received almost $ 4.8 billion from 18.9 million tourists. Well-developed hotel business: there are 130 hotels in the city.
Washington is the third in the list of US cities (after New York and Chicago) by the number of offices of commercial companies in the city. Here are the headquarters of international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Pan American Health Organization. There are few industrial enterprises in the city; this is mainly the production of consumer goods, also represented the printing industry.
In 1976, the metro opened in Washington, at present it has 86 stations, the length of the route is 171 kilometers.
By the number of high school graduates (59.9%), the District of Columbia ranks 50th in the United States (the last, 51st, is Nevada). In public schools in 2011/12 There were 77,076 students. There is an average of 12.7 pupils per teacher here (in the country this figure is 16.0). Recently, charter schools have been developing,
constitute an alternative education. Now there are 52 of them, and about 28,000 students study there.
Higher education is provided by public and private universities and colleges.
According to the academic rating of 2010, J. Washington University ranks 16th among the universities of the world. He also entered the first hundred of the best universities in the world according to the Times magazine in 2009, taking 80th place. The university was founded in 1821, now it has 24.5 thousand students.
The oldest institution of higher education in the Federal District and the oldest Catholic university in the country, Georgetown University, was founded by the Jesuits in 1789. Nowadays, 17,849 students study there.
Howard University was opened in 1867 as a private educational institution for African Americans. Currently there are about 10 thousand people.
The Catholic University of America (The Catholic University of America) has the status of the papal university. Founded in 1887 by the US Catholic clergy with the support of Pope Leo XIII. This national university of the Catholic Church in the United States functions as a research center for individuals who have already received higher education. In 2014, 6,725 students were trained.
Gallaudet University (Gallaudet University) – a private university that has received state approval, specializes in teaching deaf and hearing impaired students. It was founded in 1864 and became the first higher education institution in the world for the deaf and hearing impaired. The only institution of higher education in the world where all programs are adapted for people with hearing impairment. Classes are held in English and American Sign Language. About 2,000 students study.
The center of the city and the site of many monuments is the National Alley – an open park zone one mile long. In addition to monuments and memorials, here are the museums of the Smithsonian Institution: the National Museum of American History (1964), the National Museum of Natural History (1910), the National Museum of the American Indian (founded in 1989, the building on the National Mall built in 2004 .), National Museum of Aviation and Cosmonautics (1976), Hirshon Museum and Sculpture Garden (1974), National Museum of African Art (1964).
Center for the Performing Arts. John Kennedy on the Potomac River. The idea of creating the center belonged to Eleanor Roosevelt, who in 1933, during the Great Depression, proposed to create jobs for unemployed actors. In 1935, Congress approved the construction of a new center on Capitol Hill. After a lengthy debate in the Congress, the Board of Trustees was established, and the Center was laid down only in 1964. Modern
The new building was opened in September 1971. It houses the Concert Hall, the Opera House, the Eisenhower Theater, the Family Theater, the Terrace Theater,
donated by the Japanese to the 200th anniversary of the United States; it hosts chamber music concerts. On the stage of “Mil-Lenium”, free performances are given every evening at 18 o’clock on two specially created scenes at different ends of the Great Lobby as part of the “Theater Arts for All” program. The Center also has a jazz club.
The National Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1931, is based in the building of the Center. In the orchestra 1
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