– The difference is in packaging, says Zinaida Zobkova, head of the laboratory of new technological processes for the production of whole-milk products at the Research Institute of the Dairy Industry. – Each large dairy plant: Ochakovsky, Tsaritsynsky, Ostankinsky, Lianozovsky – has its own packaging, to which the buyer has become accustomed. Less common names: "Lugovskoe", "Steppe", "Don", "Lipetsk" – this is milk from the regions. Near Moscow dairies supply products in plastic bags. They have the same standard milk, just the factories have no money for flashy modern packages. (By the way, the cost of packaging is about 40% of the price of a liter milk package). "Milk is the first human food since its birth. It contains everything that is necessary for life and development. Stories there are many cases where the use of milk and dairy products prolonged life. An example of longevity can serve as an Englishman Thomas Par, who lived almost 153 years. His daily food was milk and cheese.". No, this is not a fragment of a semi-scientific treatise. This is just information from one of the many branded packages offered today to customers. However, our buyer, confused with all sorts of advertising opuses, has become very incredulous. "Absolutely, – he says, – there are no natural products left with us. Even the milk became powdered.". Is it so? “No, not that,” explained the All-Russian Research Institute of the dairy industry. – From farms, factories get milk. Its most common composition is: 2.8% protein, 4.7 – lactose, 3.4 – fat, 1 – minerals. The first technological stage is carried out at the plant – normalization, after which the products are released in accordance with GOST 13277-79 "Pasteurized milk". Now it can vary in fat content. To get, say, six percent milk, cream is added to it. To reduce the fat content added skimmed milk. The next step is pasteurization, so that the milk is safe in sanitary and hygienic terms. This is the processing mode at a temperature of 76 degrees with a shutter speed of 20 seconds, then – immediate cooling to 2-4 degrees. This is not boiling, as many people think, but the optimum temperature at which all pathogenic bacteria are destroyed. Previously, pasteurized milk was stored for no more than 36 hours, now it is perfectly preserved without boiling for three days. Those who love long-term stocks prefer long-life milk – sterilized. Here, the technology is somewhat different: processing occurs at temperatures above 100 degrees. Such "long-playing" milk is irreplaceable on long trips, hikes, in other extreme situations. Those who have the opportunity to run into the store every day are not advised by experts to get involved in this kind of milk, for the reason that when sterilizing milk loses some of its beneficial properties, for example, vitamin C is destroyed. Many people like the peculiar taste of milk. "Mozhaisky", and they grieve that it has practically disappeared from the shelves. And there is nothing to grieve about. AT "Mozhaisk", experts explain, the most used "cruel" processing mode: double sterilization. At the same time there are some changes in the protein, the interaction with the protein of milk sugar, which is not useful. The difference in taste can be felt when comparing milk of different fat content. Six percent – has a creamy, pleasant taste, yellowish color. Skimmed milk is watery, bluish. The attentive customer probably noticed that sometimes the package says: "Reconstituted milk". This means that this batch is made from powdered milk – by restoring it to a liquid state. All the useful properties of the product are preserved. The choice is a difficult test for the buyer. Interestingly, what kind of milk do the experts themselves choose? Zinaida Zobkova, chief technologist of the dairy industry of Russia, prefers dry. It is stored for a long time, it has its own special taste: add it to coffee, even if you cook porridge. But buying dry milk, experts warn, one must be extremely attentive. On the cartons there is always comprehensive information for the consumer, and such milk can be safely bought. Another thing is milk powder, which is sometimes sold simply in plastic bags without any kind of label. Such "anonymous" Milk (however, like any other product without a label) you can’t be bought at all! For it is not known that white powder is poured in a package. Quality milk powder must have a label that says: "Powdered milk, premium grade, spray dried". The question of the benefits of cow’s milk from time to time begins to excite society. Only in my memory milk was transferred several times from the category of useful products to harmful ones – and vice versa. The truth is, as always, in the middle. Indeed, some people have an individual intolerance to milk sugar due to a lack of the enzyme lactose. This feature of the body has about 10 percent of the population. They are not shown milk in its pure form, but just like everyone, fermented milk products are useful. For allergy sufferers, vegetarians and other gourmands there is soy milk, in which there is no lactose. So drinking or not drinking is your choice. We just recall the simple words of Academician Ivan Pavlov: "Milk is food given by nature itself.".
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