In our century, continuing the traditions of the previous century of scientific and technological progress, people have learned to appreciate the ecology. Today, everyone wants to breathe clean air, drink clean water, eat healthy food. Some solve these problems by buying clean water in a store, installing air purifiers at home, and buying expensive, but natural, food. Other people try to move to a cleaner area. But where to look for such oases of purity? Let’s see where the cleanest cities in the world are.
The American edition of The Forbes has published a ranking of the most environmentally friendly countries in the world. 140 countries were evaluated according to the methodology of The Environmental Performance Index, developed by Columbia and Yale universities. The method is based on an assessment of the environment according to 25 criteria (ranging from air purity and water quality to biodiversity and the use of pesticides).
Switzerland scored 95.5 points out of 100 possible.
State in Central Europe; bordered by France, Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Italy. Area – 41.3 thousand square meters.
One of the richest nations in the world in terms of per capita GDP is the cleanest in the world. There are all conditions in Switzerland to live a long life.
The Kingdom of Sweden is a state in Northern Europe; occupies the eastern and southern parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Gotland and Öland in the Baltic Sea. Area – 450.5 thousand square meters. km From the east, Sweden is washed by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia, in the south and southwest by the Danish straits. In the northern and western parts of the country are dominated by mountains and plateaus, in the south – hilly plains and lowlands. Along the border with Norway stretch the Scandinavian mountains, to the east of them – right up to the Gulf of Bothnia – the plateau of Nor Land. The highest point of the country is Kebnekaise mountain (2123 m). In the north of the country there are 370 glaciers with a total area of 314 square meters. km The rivers are rapids, rich in hydropower. Lakes occupy approx. 9% of the territory. The northern territories and highlands are covered with tundra, which occupies almost 15% of the country’s area. One of the main natural resources of Sweden is forests, mainly pine and spruce; south of 60 ° c. sh. – mixed. Forests cover 57% of the territory. Large areas are occupied by swamps (14%). There are many national parks and reserves in the country. Agricultural land is located in the very south of the country and in the east along the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. They occupy a little more than 8% of the territory (6.7% of arable land; 1.4% of pastures).
The climate is temperate, transitional from sea to continental; due to the large length of the country varies greatly from north to south. The average January temperature in the north is from -6 to -14 ° С, in the south – from 0 to + 5 ° С; July – from +10 ° С in the north to +17 ° С in the south. On the plains 500–700 mm of precipitation falls annually, in the mountains 1500–2000 mm. In the end. 8th beginning 11th century Swedish Vikings (known in Western Europe under the name of the Normans, and in Russia – the Vikings), raided the neighboring lands, including Russia, Byzantium and the Arab Caliphate. From the middle. 12th century Swedish kings made crusades against the Finnish tribes and in the beginning. 14th century conquered Finland. In 1389, a union was concluded with Denmark, and in 1397 a tripartite alliance, including Norway. This union has broken up in the middle. 15 in. All R. 16th century Sweden joined the struggle for supremacy in the Baltic, which resulted in a series of Russian-Swedish wars. In the 17th century Sweden became one of the most powerful states in Europe, which allowed it to achieve temporary success in the Northern War of 1700-1721. with Russia.
The Kingdom of Norway is a state in Northern Europe; occupies the western and northern parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Svalbard archipelago, Bear Island and Jan Mayen Island in the North Atlantic. Area – 387 thousand square meters. km (including Norway – a mountainous country. Almost the whole of its territory is occupied by the Scandinavian mountains, heavily dissected by fjords and cut by deep valleys. The highest point is Mount Halhopiggen (2469 m). In the southern and northern parts of the country there are high plateaus (fjelds ), there are many islands off the coast.The mountains are covered with extensive glaciers with a total area of almost 3000 sq. km. In addition, on Spitsbergen, the glaciers occupy 36.6 thousand sq. km.
Norway is a highly developed industrial country, one of the richest countries in Europe. Gross domestic product is 149 billion dollars, per capita accounts for more than 33 thousand dollars a year. The main source of wealth of the country is oil and gas production on the North Sea shelf and fishing. There are developed electrometallurgy and electrochemistry, pulp and paper and fish processing industries, shipbuilding and production of offshore oil drilling platforms, electrical and electronic industries, production and sale of electricity. In total, these industries account for 31% of GDP. The main branch of agriculture (2% of GDP) is meat and dairy cattle breeding, barley and oats are produced from cereals. Services and international tourism provide 67% of GDP. The southern part of the country has an extensive network of railways and highways. Many long (up to 10-12 km) tunnels connecting mountain areas; ferry traffic is widely developed through the fjords, a number of coastal islands connected to the mainland by high bridges.
The capital of Norway is Oslo; It is located on the northern coast of the Oslo Fjord Bay, which penetrates deep into the land. Founded ca. 1048 g. Con. 13th century until 1380 – the residence of the Norwegian kings, from 1572 – the center of the Danish administration in Norway. After the fire in 1624, it was rebuilt in a new place and was named Cristiania (after the Danish king Christian IV). In 1814, declared the capital of Norway. Population – approx. 500 thousand people., In the metropolitan area of Big Oslo – more than 900 thousand people. The country’s largest transport hub, port, Fornebu International Airport. Oslo produces a quarter of all industrial products in Norway. Mechanical engineering is developed (including shipbuilding); electrical, electronic, chemical, printing industry. On Bygdö Peninsula there are museums with the ancient Viking ships, the legendary Fram by F. Nansen, the Kon-tiki and Ra-2 rafts by Thor Heyerdahl.
The Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish Rep. Blica de Costa Rica, translated as “rich coast”) is one of the smallest countries in Central America. Located in the narrowest part of the isthmus connecting the two continents. Costa Rica is bordered by two countries: Nicaragua in the north and the Republic of Panama in the southeast. The Pacific Ocean washes the shores from the south and the west and the Caribbean Sea from the east. Despite its location, Costa Rica is predominantly a “white” country. The capital of Costa Rica is the city of San José (890 thousand inhabitants). Costa Rica is the first country in the world to abolish the army in 1949, after the civil war.
The fourth in purity in the world. Costa Rican economy is largely dependent on ecotourism, so the country seeks to achieve zero carbon emissions by 2021. Costa Rica was able to avoid serious deforestation that threatens other countries in Latin America. She received 97 points out of 100 possible in the categories of “forest”, “air pollution” and “climate change”. On the other hand, the country does not deal very well with the protection and preservation of marine areas in need of protection.
The prosperity of Colombia is directly related to land fertility and the cultivation of agricultural products. AT
Colombia (isp. Colombia), the official name of the Republic of Colombia is sp. Rep? Blica de Colombia – a state in the north-west of South America. The capital is Bogota. It borders with Brazil and Venezuela in the east, in the south – with Ecuador and Peru, in the west – with Panama. Washed by the Caribbean Sea in the north and the Pacific Ocean on
In the north of Colombia lies the Caribbean lowland with a subequatorial arid climate. Here are the main ports of the country and the main resorts that attract foreign tourists. Here is the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta with the snow-capped peak of Cristobal Colon (5775 m), which is the highest mountain of Colombia. The west coast is occupied by a narrow Pacific lowland with heavy rainfall throughout the year and large tides, which makes the beaches of this region less popular with tourists. The lagoons along the Pacific coast are occupied by powerful mangroves. In the south of the country, the Andes branch out into three parallel ridges, called the Western, Central and Eastern Cordillera, which stretch to the north for more than 3 thousand kilometers. In the intermountain valleys are the main agricultural land of the country and most of the population lives in Colombia. But many extinct and active volcanoes, as well as the high seismicity of the territory, cause damage to the population and the economy. The Colombian part of the lionos region is located in the southern part of the Orinok lowland. The sub-equatorial hot climate with a humid summer and a dry winter determines the spread of wet grass and palm savannas, gallery forests along rivers and reed marshes in the region. The southeast of the country is occupied by the Amazon jungle, located in the region of constantly-humid equatorial climate. Lush impenetrable vegetation (five tiers of trees up to 70 m tall) and a rich fauna differ in great diversity. But because of the difficult natural conditions, only 1% of the country’s population lives in this region.
Sparsely populated New Zealand is a paradise for tourists. The country pays great attention to environmental protection. According to the purity index, it is far ahead of other countries in the region due to the quality of water and air. But industrial enterprises are doing their “dirty bit” of CO2 emissions.
This is a country in Oceania; occupies two large islands – North and South (separated by the Strait of Cook, width 32 km), as well as groups of islands in the South Pacific (Tokelau, Cook, Niue, Kermadek, Three Kings) and others. In the west there is the Tasman Sea, in the north – by the sea of Fiji, in the east – by the Pacific Ocean. The area is 270,534 square meters. km (incl. North of the island – 115 thousand, South – 150.5 thousand). New Zealand is also one of the most educated countries in the world.
The territory of the North Island in the east is covered with mountain ranges with altitudes up to 1400-1700 m. In its central part there is a volcanic plateau with cones of active volcanoes – Ruapehu (2797 m) and others, geysers, mud volcanoes, hot springs and warm lakes. To the west of this plateau is the extinct volcano Egmont (2518 m). Frequent earthquakes, sometimes destructive forces. To the north of the volcanic plateau is the hilly lowland. There are narrow low stripes along the coast in the south and in the central part of the island. Along the western coast of the South Island, from north to south, the mountain range of the Southern Alps stretched with 19 peaks above 3000 m and many spurs-ridges. The highest point of the country is Mount Cook (3764 m). Alpine landforms (sharp peaks) and steep, steep slopes are characteristic of the ridges. Along the east coast of the South Island, from north to south, stretched a narrow Canterbury Plain. In the south-east of the island are the lowland Southland and the Otago mountain plateau, in the south-west there are deep fjords (Fiordland National Park).
Life expectancy in Japan is about 82 years. This is the highest figure in the world. Partly due to excellent water treatment technologies, sanitary conditions, prevention of the use of chemical pesticides and relatively low levels of air pollution. The problem here is the depletion of fish stocks in coastal waters and, accordingly, a decrease in marine biological diversity.
Japan (Jap. Nihon, Nippon), the official name “Nihon Koku”, “Nippon Koku”, the archaic name “Yashima” (yap. Yashima) is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Sea of Japan, China, North and South Korea and Russia, it stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south of the country. The name of the country means “the birthplace of the sun,” and that is why Japan is called the “land of the rising sun.” Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands: Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku together constitute 97% of the total area of the archipelago. Most of the islands are mountainous, many volcanic; for example, the highest point of Japan, Mount Fuji – a volcano. With a population of more than 127 million people, Japan ranks tenth in the world. Greater Tokyo, which includes the de facto capital of Japan, Tokyo and several nearby prefectures, with a population of over 30 million people, is the largest urban agglomeration in the world. As a great economic power, Japan ranks second in the world in nominal GDP and third in GDP, calculated at purchasing power parity. Japan is the fourth largest exporter and sixth largest importer.
Japan is a member of the G8 and APEC, as well as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Although Japan officially renounced its right to declare war, it supports modern and extensive military force, which is used for self-defense and peacekeeping operations. Japan is a developed country with a very high standard of living (10th place on the human development index). Japan has the highest life expectancy in the world and one of the lowest infant mortality rates.
Japan remains the only country in the world against which nuclear weapons were used.
The Republic of Croatia is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the west and south it is washed by the Adriatic Sea. It consists of 4 historical regions: Small Croatia, Dalmatia, Slavonia, Istria. The area is 56,414 square meters. km The territory of the country has a wedge-shaped configuration: one of the wedges formed by the rivers Mura, Drava and Danube in the north and r. Sava in the south stretches east to Serbia; another wedge, bounded by the Adriatic Sea and the western ridges of the Dinar Alps, stretches south to Kotor Bay. Slavonia is a flat area between the Drava, Danube and Sava rivers (part of the Middle Danube lowland). To the south-west of it is a mountain range of the limestone Dinar Alps, stretching along the coast of the Adriatic Sea: the highest point is Mount Tsintsar (2085 m). In Istria, flat terrain prevails. There are earthquakes. The coastline of the Adriatic Sea is heavily indented. There are a lot of rocky islands along the coast (there are 1185 of them).
Slavonia and Minor Croatia have a temperate continental climate with warm summers (+ 20 … + 23 ° С) and cool winters (-1 … + 3 ° С); in Dalmatia and Istria – a Mediterranean subtropical climate with a warm, almost no rain in summer (+25 ° C) and a mild, rainy winter (+8 ° C). In winter, the cold northeast wind “borax” blows. In the Dinar Alps, the climate is mountainous, with moderately warm summers, moderately cold winters, and abundant precipitation, which, due to karst, quickly sink into the ground. In the east and north falls 700-1000 mm, on the Adriatic coast – 800-1500 mm of precipitation per year.
The main rivers are the Sava, the Drava, the Danube and the Kupa. The largest lake –
The Republic of Albania (from Alb. Shkiperiya – the country of eagles) is located in the south-east of Europe, in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula; stretched from north to south along the coast of the Adriatic and Ionian seas. Area – 28 748 thousand square meters.
Albania, like its Eastern European neighbors, does not belong to the category of countries with immaculate ecology. But since the country’s industry has never worked at full capacity (GDP per capita is only $ 6,000) and the country has not undergone total industrialization, Albania produces few greenhouse gases. However, the propensity to use stove heating allows assigning Albania 47.7 points on the index of indoor air pollution.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a state in southwest Asia, off the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. In the north it borders with Lebanon, in the northeast with Syria, in the east with Jordan and the West Bank, in the southwest with Egypt and the Gaza Strip. It was proclaimed on May 14, 1948 on the basis of the resolution of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) No. 181, adopted on November 29, 1947 (see the “UN Plan for the Section of Palestine”). According to the Declaration of Independence, Israel is Jewish.
7.2 million Israelis enjoy the quality of water, air, and compete with the cleanest countries in Europe. Life expectancy here is 81 years. Despite the droughts, Israel has a sound policy for its small forests. The scourge of the country – pesticides that affect food.
September 28, 2011 | Categories: Nature, Topper